Probiotics And The Hygiene Hypothesis
The mechanisms of action by which probiotic supplementation might reduce allergic diseases have not been elucidated but could be related to changes in the gut microbiota, immunological effects, or a combination of the two. Differences in the intestinal flora between allergic and nonallergic infants and children have been described, which predicate the development of allergic disease, including eczema, suggesting a potential causal relationship.27-30 Specifically, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are more often found in the microbiota of nonallergic children.28,30 The hygiene hypothesis provides a framework for understanding the increased incidence of allergic diseases in the context of microbial and immune interactions.
It is important to note that the hygiene hypothesis has been revised several times and merely constitutes a theory to explain much more complicated immunologic functioning.
Study Selection And Eligibility Criteria
The articles were reviewed independently by 3 investigators for inclusion. Any discrepancies between the inclusion lists of the 3 investigators were discussed with another investigator and resolved.
A multitiered selection criterion was used to select the articles containing usable data. The first tier involved 2 team members determining the probiotic used and the age at which the participant began use. Articles were excluded that did not use probiotics or that had the participating infant begin the protocol after 6 months of life. With the next tier of selection, any article that had participant infants already diagnosed with either atopic dermatitis or any form of eczema before beginning supplementation was excluded. For the third tier of selection, any studies that did not assess the participants after 6 months of age were excluded.
What Does Histamine Intolerance Look Like
Histamine intolerance falls into the category of a food intolerance. This means that allergy tests come back negative but your baby still shows signs of an allergic response when eating certain foods.
These signs include:
- Flushed skin
- Trouble sleeping
After histamine exposure , you might also see more rashes, itching, and eczema.
Histamine intolerance isnt an allergy. But because an allergic response always involves the release of histamine, the two look very similar.
One important difference to keep in mind is that with a food allergy, even tiny amounts of the trigger food will lead to symptoms.
Whereas histamine intolerance is cumulative, often compared to a cup that can eventually overflow with histamine, leading to signs of histamine overload.
Some of the things that help to maintain histamine levels are enough DAO the enzyme the breaks down histamine and plenty of gut microbes that help to metabolize histamine.
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Huge Variety And Selection
The online platforms around the world are growing exponentially in size, and that applies to the selection of products as well. As they get more popular, more and more brands sign up to sell their products on online platforms.
They have a wide range of products across many categories, divided and organized well. This helps you find exactly what you are looking for easily. You may even get software-generated recommendations for products you may need. This includes probiotics for kids and many more.
Having a huge variety means that you can assess your preferences and choices. You can choose from a range of alternatives before purchasing. This is often not the case in most physical stores, where there is a limitation to the number of brands.
How To Use Probiotics For Treating Eczema
If you decide to add probiotics to your regimen, talk with your doctor. There are many different types of bacteria. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the most common supplements and have unique benefits. Your doctor can help you decide which type or combination is best for you and where to find it.
Lactobacillus bacteria are typically found in yogurt and other fermented foods. These bacteria are said to help ease diarrhea and may be beneficial for people who are lactose intolerant.
Bifidobacterium bacteria are also found in yogurt and some other dairy products. Theyre thought to help with irritable bowel conditions.
Other probiotic-rich foods that you can add to your diet are:
Probiotic-rich foods and supplements are generally safe to consume. Your first choice should be naturally, through foods.
However, if you have any of the following conditions, you should consult your doctor before using supplements:
- compromised immune system
- bowel conditions
- other chronic illness
Women who are pregnant should exercise caution when using probiotic supplements. Infants and young children shouldnt take probiotic supplements.
There usually arent any side effects associated with consuming probiotic-rich foods or drinks.
When taking a probiotic supplement for the first time, or switching to a new probiotic supplement, you may experience an upset stomach or other gastrointestinal issues while your body adjusts.
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What About Probiotics For Constipation Or Colic
Gas and bloating may be one cause of your newborns colic.
Some studies show probiotics may reduce colic symptoms and crying in infants who are breastfed. But you should discuss with your babys pediatrician before offering probiotics to infants younger than six months old.
There are many reasons kids get constipated. One reason is children dont eat enough fiber to keep their GI tract moving. Little ones prefer bland diets, which are very low in fiber-containing leafy green vegetables and whole grains.
Doctors generally dont recommend probiotics to treat constipation because there isnt enough evidence that its beneficial. So, stick to natural stool softener foods to keep your little ones bowels regular.
Floratummys Probiotic Sprinkles 2699 For 30 Sachets Best For Those With Food Allergies
Suitable for: 1+
These probiotics for kids contains five billion live bacteria cultures in two probiotic strains, as well as a prebiotic to help nourish the beneficial bacteria in your childrens gut.
Its suitable for non-dairy kids, free from major food allergens and suitable for vegans. As a powder, it can also be easily mixed into drinks, added to yoghurt or sprinkled on top of cereals and porridge.
It may not contain a huge diverse number of bacterial strains, but the brand promotes the formula as being able to naturally help with a range of issues including diarrhoea, constipation, bloating, belly pain and colic, too.
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Best Probiotics For Infants Baby And Toddlers
Features: first-ever USDA Certified Organic liquid probiotic, no harsh chemicals, fillers, and artificial ingredients, long shelf life, and no refrigeration necessary, non-GMO, vegan, gluten-free, water-based, plant-based, 12 live strandsBest for: overall baby and toddler gut health helps with baby or toddlers digestive problems, constipation, diarrhea, gas, bloating, IBS, and other gastrointestinal complaints. Ingredients: live probiotics that have not been heat-treated, which means you get more live probiotics in each serving. Strains Lactobacillus-Acidophilus, L-Rhamnosus, L-Salivarius, L-Casei, L-Plantarum, Lactococcus-Lactis, Streptococcus-Thermophilus, Bifidobacterium-Bifidum, B-Lactis, B-Infantis, B-Breve, and B-Longumwater in an enzyme-enriched substrate with water and a proprietary blend of 3 organic grasses. Taste: tastes like water your baby or toddler will never know they are taking probiotics. You can mix it with water, formula, or breast milk or drop it directly into baby or toddlers mouth. Cost per Serving: $0.29 per toddler servingThings to Know: there are only dosages for children ages 1-3 on the package, but the product would be great for baby as well just consult with your pediatrician for the correct dosage.
Note on Products: while I did receive some of these products as gifts, this post is not sponsored and all opinions are my own.
Evidence On Prevention Of Allergic Rhinitis
Development of allergic rhinitis in the child following supplementation of probiotics in pregnant women has been evaluated in 5 studies reviewed by Fiocchi et al. .
Three trials evaluated the onset of AR after supplementing with probiotics breastfeeding mothers and infants . Again, relatively few events have been observed and the results were inconclusive . Four trials assessed the development of AR following infant supplementation and confirmed the lack of efficacy of probiotics .
However, in a large cohort study , the mothers of 40,614 children were asked to consume two brands of milk and yogurt that contain probiotic strains during pregnancy. A slight reduction of the risk of rhinoconjunctivitis at 1836 months was reported . The association between rhinoconjunctivitis and probiotics appeared increased in the case of both the mother and the child had consumed these probiotics, as compared when only mother or child consumed.
Conversely, in a longitudinal trial, a higher prevalence of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis at the age of 510 years was noted in the probiotic group as compared with the placebo group .
Therefore, at present, there is no clear evidence that probiotics prevent AR , with some reports demonstrating even a detrimental effect .
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Are Probiotics Good For Toddlers Final Words
The long-term effects of probiotics on children are yet to be fully proven. It is thus best to include probiotic items in your childs diet to help them maintain a healthy gut microbiome. Make sure the probiotic-rich food item you buy, such as yogurt, for example, has live and active cultures on the label.
However, before adding probiotics to your childs diet, check with their doctors to see whether theyre a good fit for them. Use this list of seven probiotics for kids as a starting point after youve received permission.
Evidence On Prevention Of Atopic Dermatitis
The pioneering study using Lactobacillus GG probiotic supplementation in pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers, and infants at high risk of allergy, demonstrated a reduced prevalence of early AD in children compared to the control group . Noteworthy, specific Toll-like receptor genetic variations were associated with the protection of eczema by two probiotic strains , suggesting that individual genetic factors might influence the efficacy and outcome of probiotic supplementation .
Table 2 shows details of published RCTs on this topic, with several studies supporting , while others providing no evidence , for recommending probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease.
Two other meta-analyses published in 2015 documented a clear benefit of probiotics only for primary prevention of eczema but did not report significant preventive effects of any other allergic manifestations . Zuccotti et al. analyzed 17 studies and found that probiotics supplementation was associated with a significantly lower relative risk for developing eczema compared with placebo , and the most pronounced effect was obtained in particular when heterogeneous mixtures of probiotic strains were used .
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Best Probiotics For A Child On Antibiotics
Unfortunately, taking antibiotics can wipe out lots of friendly bacteria as well as bad bacteria, this can lead to a microbial imbalance.11 If your child needs to take antibiotics and is already taking a daily probiotic supplement, you can continue giving them this but just leave a two-hour gap between the antibiotic and probiotic.
If they are not already taking a probiotic supplement, or if its more convenient, then alongside the medication you could give them a specific probiotic designed to be taken with antibiotics. There is a unique combination of extensively researched probiotic strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus Rosell 52 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Rosell 11, which have been trialled alongside antibiotics and shown to survive to reach the gut alive 12.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG® is a very well-known probiotic strain which has been trialled for antibiotic associated diarrhoea . In one clinical trial, children who took L. rhamnosus GG® had significantly increased stool consistency and reduced stool frequency during antibiotic therapy by the 10th day compared to the control group29.
For more information on this topic, you can read Probiotics with Antibiotics
Bioglan Biotic Balance Choc Balls 999 For 75g Best For Fussy Eaters
Suitable for: 4+
Type: Chocolate balls
If giving vitamins or probiotics to your kids is always a struggle, these could be the answer. The tasty chocolate balls contain one billion live bacteria in two high-quality strains plus fibre , and we guarantee your little ones wont hesitate to gobble them up.
They do contain less strains than other products in this list and a fair dose of sugar, but if its going to help make probiotics more appealing to kids, were sold on the idea.
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Mechanistic Insights Into Functioning Of Probiotics
The discovery of Th17 cells as the mediators of allergic inflammation in a mouse model of asthama superseded the previous modes of action of probiotics against allergic diseases . The application of probiotics reduced the inflammation by suppressing the levels of INF-, IL-4, and Th17 cells in splenic CD4 T-cells and increasing the expression of IL-10 and Treg-related cytokines in mesenteric lymph nodes as shown in Figure . Probiotics also impose an inhibitory effect on the maturation of dendritic cells and, therefore, inhibit naive T-cells from differentiating into Th2 cells, which triggers inflammation in the skin . The differentiation of naïve T cells mediated by dendritic cells are known to be regulated by thymic stromal lymphopoietin , a process that could be inhibited by probiotics .
Proposed mechanism of probiotics in an animal model of AD. Exposure of atopic skin to a potential allergen enhances the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin that is known to activate dendritic cells . Stimulated dendritic cell direct differentiation of naïve T-cell into Th2 cells and Th17 cells which, are known as the mediators of allergic inflammation in skin. Probiotics could inhibit the allergic inflammation by increasing the population of regulatory T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes of patients. These Tregs could migrate to the site of inflammation and suppress the Th2 and Th17 mediated allergic response or directly reduce the expression of TSLP.
How Much Probiotic Should I Give
There is no standardized dosage to give for children and infants. In general, for adults, at least 1 billion CFU are recommended.
Nermes et. al wrote a paper stating probiotics containing as low as 3.4 billion CFU once a day over 12 weeks of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were beneficial for children.
In general, it seems that at least 20 billion CFU daily for 12 weeks is when patients started to show an improvement in their eczema symptoms.
The randomized control trials included in Huangs meta-analysis are summed up as follows:
- Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG appears to be most helpful for infants starting at age 1 month old.
- Lactobacillus fermentum appears to be helpful starting at 6 months old
- Lactobacillus appears to be helpful at 2 years old
- Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium lactis appears to be helpful at 3 months old
- Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum at 1 year old
- Bifidobacterium breve M-16V and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 starting 4 weeks prenatal for mothers and up to 6 moths after birth to infants
What Is Histamine Intolerance
Histamine is one of those compounds that requires balance.
Your body relies on histamine for:
- Wakefulness in the sleep-wake cycle
But too much histamine, and you begin to see signs of histamine intolerance.
Histamine intolerance shows up when your little one is sensitive to any extra histamine in diet.
This means high-histamine foods, high-histamine probiotics, or foods that liberate histamine.
Whats more, chronically elevated levels of histamine can keep babys eczema active.
This means that histamine intolerance is one piece of the puzzle thats often overlooked when working with eczema. Sometimes by simply managing histamine load, you can get rid of stubborn eczema and recurring rashes.
Be Discerning About Your Antibiotic Use
Although sometimes antibiotics are necessary, Will Bulsiewicz, M.D., MSCI, a gastroenterologist and internationally recognized gut health expert, advises that you âproceed cautiouslyâ when presented with an option to take antibiotics. Bulsiewicz recommends avoiding unnecessary use by always asking if the medication is necessary and if there are other safe options to explore first.
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Mechanisms Of Probiotics/prebiotics In Modulating Gut Microbiota
Diet is recognized as one of the most important factors which may modulate the gut microbiota composition and function . It is well-known that changes in the composition of the diet, such as westernized high fat and low fiber diet, can modify the prevalence and types of intestinal microbial species, as certain species are more suitable to utilize specific substrates . An association between low-fiber diet and non-communicable chronic diseases, including allergic diseases have been hypothesized on the basis of observational studies . The positive effects of the diet on gut microbiota are hypothesized to be due to the prebiotic component.
Moreover, in murine models, galacto-oligosaccharides have been shown to improve the skin lesions of atopic dermatitis, by inducing the production of IL-10 and blocking the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-17, . In addition, prebiotics were reported to decrease Ig free light chain concentrations in infants at high-risk for allergies : Ig-fLC might play a role in the pathophysiology of the allergic disease since increased Ig-fLC content was found in patients with AD, allergic rhinitis, asthma or cow’s milk allergy. However, overall, the mechanism of action of prebiotics seems mostly due to the previously described indirect effects on gut microbiota.
Foods With Probiotics For Kids And Toddlers
Youll find theres a few categories of probiotic foods for kids below. One is for foods that have probiotics/good bacteria naturally occurring, but the level of bacteria in them varies quite a bit. Another list is for those super probiotic foods: ferments. Fermented foods can be purchased in the store, and Im seeing them become available more often.
One helpful tip is to make sure that whatever food youre buying contains live cultures or strains. It usually says this right on the front of the package, but if youre not sure, look at the list of ingredients you should see words like Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum.
Then, rotate through brands as much as possible, because when fermented foods are manufactured, they include specific strains of bacteria to ensure the taste is always the same.
Rotating through brands gives a larger variety of that good bacteria, and thats what you want. But, I also want to encourage you to consider making your own fermented foods as this contains tons more strains of bacteria and its SUPER cheap.
All you have to do is pick up these foods at the grocery store:
- Yogurt make sure it contains live cultures
- Yogurt can also be made at home and is a fully fermented food. Heres a recipe if you want to make your own!
Foods With PreBiotics
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