Benefits Of Probiotic Supplementation In Athletes
Strenuous and prolonged exercise places stress on the GI tract that increases the likelihood of multiple symptoms associated with a disturbed gut microbiota and decreased performance , including abdominal cramping, acid reflux , nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and permeability of the gut that may precipitate systemic endotoxemia . As a major gateway for pathogen entry, the GI tract is heavily protected by the immune system. Modulation of the immune system to increase defenses against upper respiratory tract infection is the potential benefit of probiotics for athletes that has been most extensively researched . The microbiome may also have indirect functional influence on various indices of exercise performance and recovery . Therefore, probiotics as functional modulators of the microbiome can potentially promote health, exercise adaptation, and performance in athletes.
The study of probiotic supplementation in athletes and physically active individuals is quite new with the first study in humans published by Clancy et al. . Over the last 13years, the popularity and number of publications has increased substantially . The number of products containing probiotics directed towards those that exercise is increasing.
Table 3 Probiotic studies in an athletic population: performance, immune and GI health
The effect of probiotic supplementation on performance
The effect of probiotic supplementation on the immune system
The effect of probiotic supplementation on GI tract health
Are There Any Drug Interactions I Should Be Aware Of
The following medications may reduce the efficacy of probiotics when given at the same time: antibiotics, antifungals.
Vitamins, herbal therapies, and supplements have the potential to interact with each other, as well as with prescription and over the counter medications. It is important to tell your veterinarian about any medications that your pet is taking.
What Studies Support Giving Probiotics With Antibiotics
A Cochrane review of 23 studies investigated giving probiotics containing either one or a combination of the following: Bacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium butyricum, Lactobacilli spp., Lactococcus spp., Leuconostoc cremoris, Saccharomyces spp., or Streptococcus sp.
Results from 22/23 trials that reported on the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea show a significant benefit from probiotics compared to active, placebo, or no treatment control . None of the 16 trials that reported on side events documented any serious side events attributable to probiotics with the most common ones being rash, nausea, gas, flatulence, abdominal bloating, abdominal pain, vomiting, increased phlegm, chest pain, constipation, taste disturbance, and low appetite. The authors concluded that there was a protective effect of probiotics for preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The relative risk was 0.46 and the NNT was 10.
The authors considered Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Saccharomyces boulardii at 5 to 40 billion colony forming units/day to be the most appropriate choice. They also commented that although no serious adverse events were observed among the otherwise healthy children in these trials, serious adverse events have been observed in severely debilitated or immuno-compromised children with underlying risk factors , and advised that probiotics should be avoided in pediatric populations at risk for adverse events until further research has been conducted.
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Mechanism Of Action Of Probiotics
Probiotic bacteria have multiple and diverse influences on the host. Different organisms can influence the intestinal luminal environment, epithelial and mucosal barrier function, and the mucosal immune system. The numerous cell types affected by probiotics involve epithelial cells, dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, B cells, T cells. There are significant differences between probiotic bacterial genera and species. These differences may be due to various mechanism of action of probiotics. It is crucial that each strain be tested on its own or in products designed for a specific function. Molecular research on these probiotics pays attention to these strain-specific properties. Different probiotic strains have been associated with different effects related to their specific capacities to express particular surface molecules or to secrete proteins and metabolites directly interacting with host cells.
Can Probiotics Hurt Me
For most healthy people, probiotics dont cause any harm. They are generally considered safe and are often given a try to see if they could help with various medical conditions. Theres a lot of research around the topic of probiotics. Scientists are trying to determine when and how they should be used, as well as how effective they are. Talk to your healthcare provider before starting a probiotic supplement because there are some cases where you shouldnt be taking them. Its always best to have the conversation first before starting a new supplement.
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How Should People Take Probiotics
The requirements for a microbe to be considered a probiotic are that the microbe must be alive when administered, it must be documented to have a health benefit, and it must be administered at levels to confer a health benefit. A rule of thumb often cited is to take at least a billion colony forming units daily.
These are live microorganisms that will not provide the promised benefits if they don’t remain alive. The manufacturer and consumer must pay close attention to the conditions of storage at which the particular microorganism will survive and the end of their shelf life. The potency will indicate the number of viable bacteria per dose, and the purity has to do with presence of contaminating or ineffective bacteria.
The other thing to remember is that these microorganisms are not all created equally. In fact, the genus, strain, and species all need to be the same for the results that found in the study to be the results that one hopes to achieve when taking it. For example, with the strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, the genus is Lactobacillus, the species is rhamnosus, and the strain is GG. If any one of those is different in your supplement, you may not attain the same results.
How Do Probiotics Work
The main job of probiotics, or good bacteria, is to maintain a healthy balance in your body. Think of it as keeping your body in neutral. When you are sick, bad bacteria enters your body and increases in number. This knocks your body out of balance. Good bacteria works to fight off the bad bacteria and restore the balance within your body, making you feel better.
Good bacteria keeps you healthy by supporting your immune function and controlling inflammation. Certain types of good bacteria can also:
- Help your body digest food.
- Keep bad bacteria from getting out of control and making you sick.
- Create vitamins.
- Help support the cells that line your gut to prevent bad bacteria that you may have consumed from entering your blood.
- Breakdown and absorb medications.
This balancing act is naturally happening in your body all of the time. You dont actually need to take probiotic supplements to make it happen. Good bacteria is just a natural part of your body. Eating a well-balanced diet rich in fiber every day helps to keep the number of good bacteria at proper levels.
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What Are The Health Benefits Of Probiotics
Probiotics may seem new to the food and supplement industry, but they have been with us from our first breath. During a delivery through the birth canal, a newborn picks up the bacteria Bacteroides,Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli from his/her mother. These good bacteria are not transmitted when a Cesarean section is performed and have been shown to be the reason why some infants born by C-section have allergies, less than optimal immune systems, and lower levels of gut microflora.
What exactly do probiotics do? They are believed to protect us in two ways. The first is the role that they play in our digestion. We know that our digestive tract needs a healthy balance between the good and bad gut bacteria, so what gets in the way of this? It looks like our lifestyle is both the problem and the solution. Poor food choices, emotional stress, lack of sleep, antibiotic overuse, other drugs, and environmental influences can all shift the balance in favor of the bad bacteria.
Does Your Gut Need Probiotics After Antibiotics
If you take antibiotics, theres a good chance youll also get diarrhea.
Antibiotics kill harmful bacteria that cause disease. But they also cause collateral damage to the microbiome, the complex community of bacteria that live in our gut. This results in a profound, though usually temporary, depletion of the beneficial bacteria.
One popular strategy to mitigate the disruption is to take a probiotic supplement containing live bacteria during, or following, a course of antibiotics.
The logic is simple: beneficial bacterial in the gut are damaged by antibiotics. So why not replace them with the beneficial bacterial strains in probiotics to assist gut bacteria returning to a balanced state?
But the answer is more complicated.
There is currently some evidence that taking probiotics can prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This effect is relatively small, with 13 people needing to take probiotics for one episode of diarrhea to be averted.
But these studies have often neglected to evaluate potential harms of probiotic use and havent looked at their impact on the wider gut microbiome.
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Production Of Antimicrobial Substances
One of the proposed mechanisms involved in the health benefits afforded by probiotics includes the formation of LMW compounds , such as organic acids, and the production of antibacterial substances termed bacteriocins .
Organic acids, in particular acetic acid and lactic acid, have a strong inhibitory effect against Gram-negative bacteria, and they have been considered the main antimicrobial compounds responsible for the inhibitory activity of probiotics against pathogens . The undissociated form of the organic acid enters the bacterial cell and dissociates inside its cytoplasm. The eventual lowering of the intracellular pH or the intracellular accumulation of the ionized form of the organic acid can lead to the death of the pathogen .
Intestinal bacteria also produce a diverse array of health-promoting fatty acids. Indeed, certain strains of intestinal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been shown to produce conjugated linoleic acid , a potent anti-carcinogenic agent . An anti-obesity effect of CLA-producing L. plantarum has been observed in diet-induced obesity in mice . Recently, the ability to modulate the fatty acid composition of the liver and adipose tissue of the host upon oral administration of CLA-producing bifidobacteria and lactobacilli has been demonstrated in a murine model .
Should I Give Probiotics To My Kids
Probiotics can be beneficial for both adults and kids. If your child has an illness that requires an antibiotic medication for treatment, taking a probiotic can help shorten symptoms. Probiotics can also be used to help relieve constipation, acid reflux, diarrhea, gas and eczema in children.
Introducing probiotics into your childs diet through food is typically a safe way to give them probiotics. Foods like yogurt and cottage cheese are often part of a balanced diet and can add in good bacteria without much risk.
There are commercially available probiotic supplements specifically designed for infants and children. However, it is important to talk to your childs pediatrician before giving them any probiotic supplement or changing the childs diet to include probiotic-rich foods.
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What Are The Different Types Of Probiotics
Probiotic supplements, foods, and beverages contain bacteria and/or yeasts. Up until the 1960s, the only gut microflora that they were able to identify were clostridia, lactobacilli, enterococci, and E. coli. Since then, innovative techniques have discovered many more bacteria.
There are several different kinds of probiotics, and their health benefits are determined by the job that they do in the gut. They must be identified by their genus, species, and probiotic strain level. Here is a list of probiotics and their possible health benefits.
There are more than 50 species of lactobacilli. They are naturally found in the digestive, urinary, and genital systems. Foods that are fermented, like yogurt, and dietary supplements also contain these bacteria. Lactobacillus has been used for treating and preventing a wide variety of diseases and conditions.
Some of the lactobacilli found in foods and supplements are Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. acidophilus DDS-1, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus plantarium, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus gasseri.
How Might Probiotics Work
Probiotics may have a variety of effects in the body, and different probiotics may act in different ways.
- Help your body maintain a healthy community of microorganisms or help your bodyâs community of microorganisms return to a healthy condition after being disturbed
- Produce substances that have desirable effects
- Influence your bodyâs immune response.
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Protect Against Bacterial Vaginosis
As a senior woman eating food with probiotics will also help you fight against bacterial vaginosis. As probiotics are filled with healthy bacteria, they will remove all the harmful bacteria from the body.
Probiotics will not only help in preventing bacterial vaginosis but will also help in curing this condition if someone is going through it. Probiotics will prevent and stop the overgrowth of bacteria in any part of your body.
For Patients & Caregivers
Tell your healthcare providers about any dietary supplements youre taking, such as herbs, vitamins, minerals, and natural or home remedies. This will help them manage your care and keep you safe.
Probiotics are made of good bacteria and yeast. The good bacteria helps to fight off issues caused by bad bacteria, such as problems with digestion and bowel function. Taking probiotics helps balance out the bacteria in your stomach and can help you feel better.
Probiotics are found in many foods and drinks like yogurt, kefir, miso, and sauerkraut, and cottage cheese. You can also take probiotics as a dietary supplement in many forms that include:
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What Are The Types Of Microorganisms And What Do They Do
Microorganisms or microbes are microscopic organisms that exist as unicellular, multicellular, or cell clusters. Microorganims are widespread in nature and are beneficial to life, but some can cause serious harm. They can be divided into six major types: bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, algae, and viruses.
Common Strains Of Probiotics
Probiotic strains are genetic subtypes of species. Each probiotic strain has a different effect in the body. You will see the probiotic strain names on food or supplement labels, combined with the species name. For example, the Bifidobacteria or Lactobacillus species are often abbreviated as B. or L. and combined with the individual strain name, such as acidophilus. This gives you the probiotic L. acidophilus. This is how the name will appear on food or supplement labels.
Here are six common strains of probiotics that youll find on food and supplement labels.
B. animalis: This strain is an ingredient in Dannon yogurts Activia product. Its helpful in aiding digestion and fighting food-borne bacteria. Its also thought to boost your immune system.
B. breve: This strain lives in your digestive tract and in the vagina. In both places, it fights off infection-causing bacteria, or yeast. It helps your body absorb nutrients by fermenting sugars. It also breaks down plant fiber to make it digestible.
B. lactis: This is derived from raw milk. Its an ingredient in Nestles probiotic infant formula, called Good Start Natural Cultures. It also serves as a starter for:
- cottage cheese
- other cheeses
B. longum: This strain lives in your gastrointestinal tract. It helps break down carbohydrates and also can be an antioxidant.
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Conditions Related To Allergy
- A review of 23 studies in which probiotics were tested for treating allergic rhinitis found some evidence that they may be helpful for improving symptoms and quality of life. However, because the studies tested different probiotics and measured different effects, no recommendations about the use of probiotics could be made. Few side effects of probiotics were reported in these studies.
- A review of 11 studies of probiotics for asthma in children had inconclusive results.
- Atopic dermatitis is an itchy chronic skin disorder thatâs associated with allergies but not caused by them. Itâs most common in infants and may start as early as age 2 to 6 months. Many people outgrow it by early adulthood. Atopic dermatitis is one of several types of eczema.
- A 2017 review of 13 studies of probiotics for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in infants and children did not find consistent evidence of a beneficial effect. A review of 9 studies in adults provided preliminary evidence that some strains of probiotics might be beneficial for symptoms of atopic dermatitis.
Prevention of Allergies
Validation Of Health Claims
To validate or substantiate a health-related claim, the proposed relationship between the product and the health-related end point should be identified, and appropriate measurements of both should be indicated. The interests of patients and consumer involvement are becoming integral part of clinical development and should be taken into consideration. For regulatory purposes, health-related claims require sound evidence from all available sources. Positive evidence should not be outweighed by negative evidence, and sufficient evidence based on human experience should be available to support the safety and efficacy, including pre- and postmarketing experience. The greater the consistency of evidence from different sources, the stronger the evidence will be.
The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 gives the US Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate health claims on food labels. These claims describe the link between specific nutrients or substances in food, and a particular disease or health-related condition. The process of reviewing the scientific evidence of health claims involves the following steps: define the substancedisease relationship that is the subject of the claim, identify relevant studies, classify the studies, rate the studies on the basis of quality, rate the studies on the basis of the strength of their body of evidence, and report the studies’ rank order.
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