Lactobacillus Probiotic Improves C Difficile Infection Rates At Hospital
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The rate of hospital-acquired Clostridioides difficile infection improved by 39% at a Quebec hospital when 70% of antibiotic users took a three-strain Lactobacillus probiotic under a pharmacy-driven protocol, researchers reported.
Additionally, among those who took the probiotic with multiple antibiotics or one single high-risk antibiotic, the CDI incidence declined by at least half, according to results published in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
LactobacillusClostridioides difficile: Adobe Stock
We decided to do a massive primary prevention of CDI with a probiotic in a hospital that has had an endemic CDI problem for more than 20 years,Pierre-Jean Maziade, MD, clinical advisor in the Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease at Lanaudière Integrated Health and Social Services Center, told Healio.
Starting in 2016, the hospital restricted quinolone antibiotic use and replaced azithromycin with doxycycline as the principal treatment for community-acquired pneumonia, Maziade and colleague reported. According to the study, on Oct. 16, 2017, the hospital implemented a clinical order set for the three-strain probiotic preparation. Adult inpatients prescribed 2 or more days of antibiotics were flagged to receive the probiotic daily within the first 24 hours.
What You Need To Know About Clostridium Difficile
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Each year, more than 2 million people in the United States get infections from germs that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die as a result. C. difficile infectionswhich can occur after using antibioticskill at least another 15,000 Americans a year.
What is Clostridium difficile infection?
Your body has a lot of good and necessary bacteria. It also has some bad or dangerous bacteria. Clostridium difficile is part of the normal bacteria found in some peoples intestines or colons. Fortunately, when you are healthy and are not taking antibiotics, the millions of good bacteria in your system keep the C. diff under control and in smaller numbers. However, when you take an antibiotic, the levels of good bacteria are reduced down to a smaller number. This makes it possible for the C. diff to overpopulate your intestine or colon. When this happens, you may get the illness called Clostridium difficile colitis.
C. diff produces spores when attacked by antibiotics. The spores can live in the open air or in dirt for up to two years. Normal disinfectants are not effective against the spores. This means that even if you kill the C. diff bacteria, spores can still be present. This is why you can get rid of the C. diff symptoms when being treated with medicine, but it can come back later.
What are the symptoms of C. diff infection?
How is C. diff treated?
What Bacteria Kills C Diff
Clorox, Cidex OPA, and Virex were shown to be the most efficient in killing C. diff spores overall. Clorox and OPA were also efficient in killing total vegetative cell development, which is the cellular stage that causes infections. In biofilms, Virex was shown to be ineffective against vegetative cell development.
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Inhibition Ofc Difficile Spore Production
C. difficile isolates were grown on plates with Clostridium difficile agar overnight at 37 and diluted with 0.9% saline, justified to 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard . The resulting suspension was added to each of the five commercial probiotics, strains 052 and 055 in a ratio of 1:1 to 1:10-3. 100 L of the resulting solution was then plated on the C. difficile plates and incubated at 37 under anaerobic conditions for 1 week. After this incubation, bacterial colonies were collected and diluted to 0.5 mL of 0.01 M sterile PBS and centrifuged at 5000 g for 10 minutes to wash the sample, this was done twice. Afterwards, the pellet was resuspended in 4 mL of 0.9% saline and heated in a 70 water bath for 10 minutes to inactivate vegetative cells. The solution was then diluted from1:1 to 1:10-3, from which 100 L was plated on a BHI medium containing D-cylcoserine , cefoxitin , and 0.1% taurocholate for 48 hours in the 37 incubator. After incubation, the spores were counted and recorded for each plate. The assay was performed once.
Spores identified after co-incubation were confirmed by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene using C. difficile specific primers . PCR was run on strain/probiotic plates that had more than 1 spore growth. If a plate had 8 or fewer spores on it, each spore was tested individually. If any plate had more than 8 spores, then a swab of the whole plate was taken and used as a sample.
The Role Of Probiotics For C Diff
For C diff that is not cured after multiple rounds of antibiotics, Fecal Microbiota Transplant is used. This is a process in which stool containing probiotics from a healthy donor is used to restore the gut microbes of someone with C diff.
The basic concept of FMT is to introduce good probiotics into the gut of someone who lacks them. If FMT sounds like an extreme form of probiotic therapy, it is. Here’s how it works:
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Why You Need Probiotics For C Diff
Good bacteria coat and protect the intestinal wall, inhibiting and repelling unhealthy bacteria and maintaining intestinal health.
Restoring balance to your gut is the key to long term success with C. difficile. The majority of scientific studies have shown positive results when adding probiotics along with antibiotics for treating C. difficile3, 4. Taking probiotics before you start taking an antibiotic regimen has also been shown to help prevent C. difficile.
The simplest way to get the probiotics you need is by taking a supplement. But most probiotic supplements are killed by your stomach acid before they reach your intestines. If you already have C. difficile, taking a targeted, true probiotic is one of the best things you can do to speed your recovery.
Treatment Options For C Diff
C. diff is a debilitating disease that causes chronic diarrhea. It is usually caused by antibiotic use so the first step is, if possible, to stop taking the antibiotic that triggered the C diff infection.
After C diff is positively diagnosed, your doctor may start by prescribing an antibiotic.
Antibiotics may sound counterintuitive for the treatment of C diff. How is something that is caused by antibiotics treated with more antibiotics?
The answer is that the antibiotics used for a C diff infection are different from the ones that cause it. Broad-spectrum antibiotics such as clindamycin, fluoroquinolones, and cephalosporins usually trigger a C diff infection. Antibiotics used for C diff are usually metronidazole or vancomycin and are more specific for C diff.
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How Do You Prevent Recurring C Diff
To prevent C. difficile transmission, it is important to implement contact precautions, hand hygiene, and environmental cleaning and disinfection. Contact precautions for CDI patients should be continued, at least until diarrhea is resolved. In a prospective study of 27 patients with CDI, skin contamination with C.
Tip #: Try The Brat Diet
The BRAT diet is a temporary diet that strives to relieve loose stools. On the BRAT diet, you eat foods that contain soluble fiber . The main foods to eat on the BRAT diet are bananas, rice, applesauce and toast, however other foods like crackers and potatoes can be consumed as well. For more information about what to eat when youre sick, .
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Risk Factors For Contracting C Difficile Infection
People who are in hospitals or other healthcare settings are at highest risk of developing C. difficile infections. Other people are those who:
- Have serious illnesses, particularly those that can weaken the immune system
- Are taking or who have recently taken antibiotics
- Are taking medications to manage stomach acid, including those known as proton pump inhibitors
- Have had previous C. difficile infections.
The only way to prevent developing an infection with C. difficile is by avoiding exposure to the bacteria. The most effective method to do this is by frequent and proper hand washing with soap and water by everyone, patients, visitors, and anyone who works in the healthcare facilities. Waterless hand cleaners do not adequately kill C. difficile.
Patients who have C. difficile infection should be isolated from other patients to avoid spreading the bacteria. Healthcare workers who enter isolation rooms have to wear gloves and gowns. Reducing antibiotic overuse also reduces the risk of C. difficile infection. This means not asking for antibiotics for viral infections and not taking someone elses medications.
Probiotic Use May Not Protect Against Clostridium Difficile Infection
|This article is part of Infectious Disease Advisors coverage of IDWeek 2018, taking place in San Francisco, CA. Our on-site staff will be reporting on the latest breaking research and clinical advances in infectious diseases. Check back regularly for highlights from IDWeek 2018.|
SAN FRANSISCO In patients taking multiple antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, or histamine receptor antagonists, the concurrent use of probiotics was associated with an increased incidence of Clostridium difficile infection, according to research presented at IDWeek 2018, held October 3-7, 2018, in San Francisco.
The researchers of this retrospective cohort study sought to evaluate whether administering probiotics was an effective approach for precluding C difficile infection. In addition, the study authors assessed which historic risk factors were associated with an increased incidence of C difficile infection. Researchers also conducted a literature review prior to study onset, which demonstrated that the administration of probiotics closer to the first dose of antibiotics decreases the risk of C difficile infection by > 50%.
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Quantification Analysis Of Bile Acids By Liquid Chromatography
Feces, collected on day 9 of the intervention, were stored at 70°C, and the bile acids were detected by the Beijing Bio-Tech Pack Technology Company Ltd. . Briefly, feces were suspended in 1 mL methanol and extracted by vortexing for 60 min, following centrifugation at 13,200 r/min for 10 min. A total of 500 L of supernatant was centrifuged and volatilized by freeze-drying under vacuum, followed by the addition of 150 L methanol to the Eppendorf tube to dissolve the sediment. The supernatant was detected on a liquid chromatograph and mass spectrometer . The concentration of the bile acids was calculated according to the peak areas of the bile acids and external standards.
If Your Doctor Has Recommended Infusion Therapy For C Diff Infection Let Infusion Associates Help You
At Infusion Associates, we provide medically-prescribed infusion therapy in a welcoming and friendly environment. Our team of healthcare professionals is fully committed to making the experience as comfortable as possible for you or your patients. We always inform patients of any potential side effects and answer all their questions before starting treatment. In addition, we have a Registered Pharmacist on-site to make the process as seamless as possible.
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Fecal Microbiota Transplant For C Diff
FMT involves taking fecal bacteria from a healthy person and transplanting it into a recipient. This process may be used during or after a C. diff infection, to restore healthy colonic microflora.1 There are several methods for fecal transplantation:
If you’re not ready to undergo a fecal microbiota transplant to get probiotics for C diff, consider taking a probiotic supplement instead. However, keep in mind that over-the-counter probiotics will not contain the same probiotics as the ones in a FMT.
They Promote Heart Health
Heart health is integral to everyones existence, poor heart health is caused by various factors, including conditions you are born with. But the most common cause is when cholesterol build ups in your arteries, blocking the passage of blood.
There are some ways you could keep your heart healthy like exercising regularly and your diet also plays a large part in the overall health of our heart. Studies have also shown that probiotics might come in handy in keeping your heart healthy.
How does it help your heart? Well, since cholesterol plaques are dangerous to your heart, probiotics help by breaking down bile juice and hence preventing its reabsorption into the blood stream as cholesterol. Colony forming units also help in reducing blood pressure.
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Is Kefir Good For C Diff
Kefir may be more effective in preventing infection from C. difficile clinical isolates. While we found that illness severity is not caused by higher C. difficile concentrations or toxicity, its likely that kefir boosted host susceptibility in these animals, indicating probable species differences.
What Is Clostridium Difficile Infection
Clostridium difficile is a germ . It lives harmlessly in the gut of many people. About 3 in 100 healthy adults and as many as 7 in 10 healthy babies have a number of C. difficile bacteria living in their gut. The number of C. difficile bacteria that live in the gut of healthy people is kept in check by all the other harmless bacteria that also live in the gut. So, in other words, some of us normally have small numbers of C. difficile bacteria living in our guts, which do no harm.
C. difficile produces spores which are very hardy and resistant to high temperatures. Spores are passed out with the stools of people who have C. difficile in their gut. Spores can persist in the environment for several months or years. The spores can also be spread through the air . They may get on to food and into the mouth and gut of some people. Spores that get into a human gut develop into mature bacteria. So, this is how some people end up with C. difficile living harmlessly in their gut.
However, if the number of C. difficile bacteria increases greatly in the gut then it can cause problems. The most common reason why this occurs is due to taking antibiotics.
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What Are The Causes Of C Difficile Disease
C. difficile can survive for months in conditions that do not favour its growth, such as outside the human body.1 This is one of the reasons that it can be transmitted so easily. 1 Many of the people who have C. difficile are asymptomatic and do not know that they have the bacteria, therefore they can spread it further.2
Risk factors for developing a C. difficile infection include : 1,3
- Antibiotic treatment
New Guidelines Support Probiotics For C Difficile Prevention But Few Other Uses
The American Gastroenterological Association recommended that probiotics be used to treat patients with Clostridioides difficile infection, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, or irritable bowel syndrome only in the context of a clinical trial.
The American Gastroenterological Association recently issued clinical practice guidelines on the role of probiotics in the management of gastrointestinal disorders.
The guidelines were based on an accompanying technical review that reviewed the evidence to answer eight specific questions. The guideline writers focused on conditions where probiotics are commonly considered and outcomes that are important to patients, such as induction and maintenance of disease, treatment of disease, and prevention of sepsis and all-cause mortality. The guidelines and review were published by Gastroenterology on June 9.
The guidelines found little evidence to support probiotics in a number of the conditions assessed and recommended their use for treatment only in the context of a clinical trial for patients with Clostridioides difficile infection, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, or irritable bowel syndrome.
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Probiotic Proves Deadly Against Clostridium Difficile
While antibiotic resistance continues to lead to deadly Clostridium difficile infections, a team of researchers has found that a probiotic may offer a new way to kill the superbug.
In the fight against bacterial pathogens, researchers are finding new weapons in good bacteria, as a new study suggests that probiotics may be used to kill dangerous Clostridium difficilebacteria.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , the United States sees nearly 500,000 C. difficileinfections each year. The superbug is one of the biggest drug-resistant threats plaguing the countrys healthcare system, killing an estimated 14,000 individuals each year and costing about $1 billion annually in medical expenses. C. difficile infections typically occur in individuals who have recently taken antibiotics to fight another infection, as the antibiotics kill off the beneficial bacteria in the gut and thus, make patients more susceptible to infection if they come into contact with contaminated surfaces. C. difficile spores can also be spread by healthcare workers hands. The pathogen leads to inflammation in the colon, and symptoms of an infection include watery diarrhea, fever, nausea, and loss of appetite such infections are becoming increasingly drug-resistant and recurrent. In addition, more than 80% of deaths caused by C. difficile infections occur in adults who are 65 or older.