Review Effect Of Probiotics On Glucose Metabolism In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta
Abstract Our aim was to investigate the effects of probiotics on glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Online databases Embase, Web of Science, and PubMed were searched until August 2014 to identify eligible articles. Finally, 7 trials were included. Probiotic consumption significantly changed fasting plasma glucose by 15.92 mg/dL and glycosylated hemoglobin by 0.54% compared with control groups. Subgroup analysis was conducted to trials with non-yogurts control. Meta-analysis of trials with multiple species of probiotics found a significant reduction in FPG . The duration of intervention for 8 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in FPG . Subgroup analysis of trials with species of probiotics did not result in a significant meta-analysis effect. Furthermore, the duration of intervention < 8 weeks did not result in a significant reduction in FPG. The results also showed that probiotic therapy significantly decreased homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and insulin concentration . The present meta-analysis suggests that consuming probiotics may improve glucose metabolism by a modest degree, with a potentially greater effect when the duration of intervention is 8 weeks, or multiple species of probiotics are consumed.Continue reading > >
Early Nutrition And Its Role In T1d
Recent studies show that -cells autoimmunity develops in the first years of life indeed, in most cases autoantibodies can be detected by 2 years of age . This led researchers to look for environmental factors that act early in life, and special attention has been directed toward nutritional factors .
Many retrospective and prospective studies have been conducted to define the role of dietary factors in the development of T1D however, results are still controversial. The inconsistency of these results might also reflect the influence of genetic background on the individual susceptibility to external factors. Moreover, most of these studies focused on adult diet, whereas recent researches highlighted the role of infant feeding practices and early nutrition in the development of T1D . Hereafter, we will review and discuss the available evidence about the role of breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary and single foods, such as cow milk and gluten, in the onset of T1D.
Type 1 Diabetes Originates In The Gut But Probiotics Could Offer Cure
Two separate pieces of research have found that the development of type 1 diabetes is likely caused by the gut, and therefore, a type of probiotic could be the cure.
Scientists from several European and US institutions studied 33 Finnish infants over three years from birth who were genetically predisposed to type 1 diabetes.
Their study, entitled The Dynamics of the Human Infant Gut Microbiome in Development and in Progression toward Type 1 Diabetes is published in the journal Cell Host & Microbe.
They discovered that four children in the group that developed type 1 diabetes had 25% less types of bacteria in their guts than other children.
The same four infants were also found to have more amounts of a specific bacteria that is known to trigger gut inflammation. This could be a prelude to type 1 diabetes as the bacteria causes the immune system to mistakenly attack and destroy beta cells in the pancreas that usually make insulin and monitor glucose levels.
We know from previous human studies that changes in gut bacterial composition correlate with the early development of type 1 diabetes, and that the interactions between bacterial networks may be a contributing factor in why some people at risk for the disease develop type 1 diabetes and others dont, said Jessica Dunne, Director of Discovery Research at Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation , a UK charity which funded the study.
Probiotics could be the cure for type 1 diabetes
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Probiotic Interventions To Ameliorate T1d
Schematic representations of mechanisms of actions through which specific probiotic strains might help in the amelioration of T1D. Akt: protein kinase B DCs: Dendritic cells GLP-1: Glucagon-like peptide-1 NF-ÎºB: Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells IÎºBÎ±: I kappa B kinase IkkB: IÎºB kinase beta IgA: Immunoglobulin A Treg: T regulatory cell Th2: T-helper cell 2.
Direct Impact Of Probiotics On Diabetes
Probiotics play a huge role in digestion. Many of us are ignorant about the importance and benefits of probiotics. Probiotics, or good gut bacteria, should ideally comprise at least 80% of the total gut bacteria. If you are diabetic, adding probiotics, as either food or supplements, can change things dramatically. Of course, you also need to eat the right diet to feed the right bacteria after that. Some of the best probiotics for diabetics modify disturbances in their metabolisms positively. There is strong scientific evidence supporting the fact that consuming probiotics helps decrease the serum cholesterol level and improves insulin sensitivity.
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Clinical Evidence Supporting The Role Of Probiotics In Diabetes
Effect on glycaemic parameters
Clinical trials of probiotic use in patients with diabetes, as well as healthy individuals, are summarised in Table 2. Probiotics were found to lower fasting blood glucose, insulin levels, and improve glycosylated haemoglobin and insulin resistance .
Table 2: Overview of important clinical studies demonstrating the effect of probiotics on metabolic profiles in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.B. species: Bifidobacterium GSH: glutathione HbA1c: glycated haemoglobin HDL: high-density lipoprotein hs-CRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein IL: interleukin L. species: Lactobacillus MDA: malondialdehyde PC: placebo controlled TG: triglyceride TNF: tumour necrosis factor.
A meta-analysis of 12 randomised controlled trials with reported lipid profiles , fasting blood glucose , HOMA-IR , and HbA1c concluded that probiotics could reduce fasting blood glucose levels by around 15 mg/dL and HbA1c by 0.54% , along with a significant improvement of 0.98 in HOMA-IR values, indicating a modest effect on glycaemic control. This analysis elucidated that probiotics may improve glycaemic control and lipid metabolism in T2DM.38
A recent meta-analysis of 12 RCT involving 770 patients with T2DM showed that probiotics could significantly reduce fasting blood glucose by 11.27 mg/dL and serum insulin concentration by 2.36 U/mL , but with no significant reduction in HbA1c . Probiotics could significantly reduce HOMA-IR in T2DM patients .40
Gut Bacteria And Diabetes
Do people with diabetes have a different gut makeup?
Science says yes. Most studies agree that people with diabetes have more gram negative bacteria in their digestive tract . These particular bacteria are known to increase insulin resistance, increase glucose levels in the blood, promote inflammation, and increase fat storage .
What hurts our gut bacteria?
Things such as excessive fat intake, low fiber intake, excessive antibiotic use, and over cleanliness are a few ways our gut bacteria can be negatively affected .
What came first? The chicken or the egg?
It is hard to determine if diabetes causes altered gut bacteria or if the altered gut bacteria contributes to the development of diabetes.
One interesting study showed how gut bacteria from a diabetic rat was able to induce insulin resistance in a non-diabetic rat through a fecal transplant . This may suggest that altered gut bacteria contribute to the development of diabetes.
While science is pointing towards the idea that the altered gut bacteria comes before diabetes, more studies will need to be done before we find the true answer .
Can I change my gut bacteria?
Yes! Keep reading to learn how to create a happy environment and how to add more of the good bacteria to your gut 🙂
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Differences Between Gut Flora In People With And Without Diabetes
The relationship between the gut microbiota and human health is becoming increasingly recognised. It is now well-established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal gut microbiota has specific functions in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens.13
It is reported that the gut microbiota between adults with T2DM and nondiabetic adults is quite different.14 In landmark research from a European Union supported research team with European and Chinese researchers, MetaHIT clearly showed that specific imbalances in the composition and function of the intestinal bacteria led to insulin resistance and thereby increased the risk of developing T2DM.15 Gut microbial dysbiosis and an increase in opportunistic pathogens, along with a reduction of butyrate producing bacteria, were seen in patients with T2DM.16
What Are The Best Probiotics For Managing Type 2 Diabetes
18 August 2020, 11:54
Alongside physical activity and healthy eating, cultivating a diverse gut microbiome is an important part of controlling Type 2 diabetes. The gut microbiome is a microscopic ecosystem teaming with unseen life.
Like most ecosystems, the gut microbiome appears to be at its healthiest when it contains a diversity of species .
The gut microbiome is home to many different bacterial species and there are likely more that we have not yet discovered.18
If one species of bacteria is present more or less often in people with Type 2 diabetes, then its reasonable to assume that this species of bacteria may be linked to Type 2 diabetes .
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Best Probiotics For Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that results in increased blood glucose and HbA1c levels. With this ailment, your body either doesnt produce much insulin or fails to respond to the already produced.
This condition is often associated with an increased risk of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and peripheral neuropathy.
My dad has been in a constant battle with diabetes for years now, and this post collaborates with him. Over the years, my dad has tried numerous probiotics, but the following 5 mentioned works best for him.
Can Diabetics Take Probiotics
There is no evidence to suggest that diabetics should not take probiotics – although research into this subject area is limited, there is nothing that indicates probiotics are unsafe for those with diabetes.
There is no evidence to suggest that diabetics should not take probiotics.
Diabetes is an auto-immune disease that compromises the body’s production of insulin. Type one diabetes usually occurs in younger individuals and makes up less than 15% of all cases of diabetes. Type two diabetes is much more common and tends to affect people over the age of 30.
If you, or one of your clients, are diabetic and you are ever in any doubt as to whether any natural food supplement is suitable, we must always advise consulting with their medical team. The health of those with diabetes varies, and the condition often accompanies other, more serious health issues.
However, to date, there has not been any indication that people with diabetes should avoid taking probiotics. Research into probiotics and their effects on patients with diabetes remains relatively sparse, and in particular there is very little research into use of probiotics in those with Type 1 diabetes, but so far no results have indicated that probiotics should not be taken by those with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes.
You can read more about diabetes and probiotics here:
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Triggers Of Intestinal Immunity
In the association of increased intestinal permeability and inflammation, altered responses to food and microflora-derived antigens often develop. It is however indistinguishable whether the aberrant response to food or microbial antigen is the trigger of intestinal inflammation and increased permeability or vice versa.
They Found That They Had No Impact On Glycemic Control But That They Improved C
The study also found no positive impact on hemoglobin A1c after three months of taking prebiotics.
But participants who took prebiotics had their C-peptide levels increase, while those who took placebos had theirs decrease. The C-peptide level measured through a blood test is used to assess the amount of insulin your pancreas is able to produce.
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Gluten And Cereals Modulate The Gut Microbiota In T1d
A diet rich in fat and sugar like the western diet leads to an increase in Clostridium innocuum, Eubacterium dolichum, Catenibacterium mitsuokai, and Enterococcus spp. and a reduction in Bacteroides spp. . A carbohydrate-reduced diet or a low-caloric diet can revert the trend as observed in mice . The western diet also reduces the growth of other species such as Clostridium coccoides, Lactobacillus spp., and Bifidobacteria spp. however, a diet rich in complex carbohydrates enhances the reduction of Mycobacterium avium subspecies and Enterobacteriaceae and the increase in Bifidobacteria spp. . Protein-rich diets can stimulate the activity of bacterial enzymes this leads to the production of toxic metabolites that promote inflammation . On the contrary, the vegetarian diet, which is rich in fibers, stimulates the short chain fatty acids’ production, causing a decrease in the intestinal pH and preventing the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria .
The use of Bifidobacterium strains as probiotics showed a reduction in the gut inflammation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines which consequently improve the gut barrier’s function. It was also demonstrated that probiotics can reduce the toxicity of gliadin by degrading the proinflammatory gluten peptides and reducing their immunogenicity .
Are Probiotics Capable Of Reversing Diabetes
Recently, it was discovered that probiotics have a broad range of applications in disorders such as autoimmune, inflammatory, and allergy problems. Probiotics effectiveness in diabetes has been shown by their capacity to reduce fasting glucose and insulin levels in both preclinical and human studies.
Research Looks To End Mystery Around Type 1 Diabetes
What if something readily available at your neighborhood drugstore could potentially save your child from a lifetime of Type 1 diabetes ? Thats what researchers from Childrens Wisconsin and the Medical College of Wisconsin are trying to confirm. Their hypothesis is that probiotics yes, the kind you can buy over the counter can help prevent T1D.
Probiotics: The Good Guys
Of course, we all want good bacteria in our gut. But how do we get it? Probiotics are usually bacteria, although yeasts can be probiotics, too. You can affect the balance of bacteria in your gut in three ways: via the environment, by food, and by taking supplements.
The environment: Believe it or not, the more were exposed to dirt, the better our microbiome may be. Now, no one is saying that you need to live in filth, but our culture tends to promote excessive cleanliness, and that may not be such a good thing, especially if you have kids in the house. Studies show that being exposed to a variety of microbes, especially during childhood, helps to strengthen your immune system. So dont be afraid to dig in the dirt, go camping, or be outside, in general. Other things that can help include having a pet , avoiding antibacterial cleaners, and occasionally washing dishes by hand versus using the dishwasher.
Food: Eating certain foods is a great way to get your probiotics. Choose foods that contain live cultures, such as yogurt, buttermilk, acidophilus milk, kefir , kimchi , sauerkraut , tempeh , miso , olives, and kombucha . Some cheeses may contain probiotics, too.
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Comparison With Previous Findings
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first randomised trial to assess the effects of any of the probiotics on beta-cell function in children with newly diagnosed T1D. However, the Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young prospective, cohort study examined the association between early probiotic exposure and islet autoimmunity in children genetically at increased risk for T1D. This study found that early administration of probiotics may be associated with a reduced risk of islet autoimmunity, especially in children with the highest-risk human leukocyte antigen genotype of DR3/4 , but no reduction was seen in children with moderately higher-risk genotypes. We did not perform genetic tests thus, the effects of genotypes in our study population remain unclear.
In addition to probiotics, synbiotics are used to modulate the gut microbiota. One recent randomized controlled trial in 44 Iranian children with T1D found that the supplementation with a synbiotic for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in the HbA1c and marginally significant decrease in fasting blood glucose.
Connections Between Gut Leakage Inflammation And Glucose And Insulin Metabolism
Whole bacteria, as well as their products and metabolites, undergo increased translocation through the gut epithelium to the circulation, due to degraded tight junctions and the consequent increase in intestinal permeability that culminates in inflammation and insulin resistance.17 Lipopolysaccharides from the membranes of gram-negative bacteria penetrate into the blood stream via impaired permeability of the intestinal mucosa, which induces metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation, impaired glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, obesity, and contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome, T2DM, and other conditions.18
Dietary intolerance alters the gastrointestinal microbiota. This initiates an immune response when bacteria migrate into the general circulation, as a result of increased intestinal permeability. Increased insulin resistance in the hypothalamus increases food intake by decreasing satiety, thus increasing body weight. Consequential inflammation and immune cell infiltration of insulin sensitive organs induces insulin resistance, supporting the obese phenotype.19
A study of women with T2DM identified that these patients had a different gut metagenome compared to those with normal glucose control this implied that the metagenome can be used as a risk factor to predicting T2DM.14 Apelin, a molecule with the potential to restore insulin sensitivity, can induce glucose lowering by enhancing glucose uptake into the skeletal muscles and adipose tissue .26
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What Are Probiotics And Prebiotics
A probiotic is a micro-organism. Probiotics are usually bacteria, but probiotics can also be fungal yeasts. Probiotics protects the host from various infections by essentially crowding out disease-causing bacteria, other pathogens and viruses. In addition, evidence is growing that probiotics can help diminish the symptoms of and prevent disease, including diabetes. Other disorders where probiotics are useful are inflammatory bowel disease , irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea, allergic disorders, dental cavities, colic, the common cold and liver disease .
There are three main ways to populate the gut through the environment , through your diet and by using supplements.
You dont have to do anything special to get bacteria from the environmentthey will find you! In fact, there is something called the Hygiene Hypothesis that states essentially that too much cleaning and disinfecting is the root cause for the increase in a number of different diseases. Put it this wayhumans and all the bacteria on the planet evolved right alongside each other and we are just now scratching the surface of what the co-evolution means as far as our own health. For example, children who grow up on farms, are exposed to manure, play in the dirt and bring that dirt inside with them tend to have less allergies, fewer autoimmune diseases , and fewer skin disorders such as eczema.
To get more probiotics in your diet, there are two types of foods that will accomplish this:
2. Probiotic foods.