Gut Microbiota Complications And The Immune System
As discussed above, gut microbial dysbiosis and complications after transplantation coexist. However, the role of a host immune system in the correlation between gut microbial dysbiosis and complications is rarely studied. Similar to pathogens, gut microbes express microbial-associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharides that can be sensed by specialized receptors on various cells, including immune and gut endothelial cells, to communicate with the immune system. There are a variety of pattern recognition receptors . The most studied ones are Toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors . Intracellular adaptors are indispensable in transferring PRR signaling information and MyD88 is the most studied one, which is a molecule downstream of all TLRs except TLR3. After being exposed to MAMPs, PRR signaling in cells can promote the expression of major histocompatibility complex and costimulatory molecules, particularly on antigen-presenting cells and some endothelial cells . As a result, cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor , type I interferons , interleukin-1 and IL-6 are produced.
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The Microbiota And The Heart
The human microbiota refers to the microorganisms that live on and in the body, many of which aid in our body in a number of ways. For example, certain strains of bacteria are an essential part of digestion. The American Society for Microbiology explains that the microbiota consists of trillions of microbes. These arent just any bacteria, either. It is a very specific grouping of organisms one that differs from person to person.
Modern science is learning more about how diversity in the microbiota, especially in the gut, affects disease processes and overall health. The right balance of good bacteria keeps the ecosystem inside the digestive tract in check, helping to prevent chronic illnesses like heart disease. Thats where adding probiotics to your wellness strategy may improve your heart health.
Probiotics May Lower Your Cholesterol
A number of large studies have shown that certain probiotics may be able to lower blood cholesterol, particularly in people with high cholesterol levels.
One of these, a review of 15 studies, specifically examined the effects of Lactobacilli.
There are two main types of cholesterol: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is generally seen as good cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is generally viewed as bad cholesterol.
This review found that, on average, Lactobacillus probiotics significantly reduced both total cholesterol and bad LDL cholesterol levels .
The review also found that two types of Lactobacillus probiotics, L. plantarum and L. reuteri, were particularly effective in reducing cholesterol levels.
In one study of 127 people with high cholesterol, taking L. reuteri for 9 weeks significantly lowered total cholesterol by 9% and bad LDL cholesterol by 12% .
A larger meta-analysis combining the results of 32 other studies also found a significant beneficial effect in reducing cholesterol .
In this study, L. plantarum, VSL#3, L. acidophilus and B. lactis were particularly effective.
Probiotics were also more effective when taken by people with higher cholesterol, when taken for a longer period of time and when taken in capsule form.
There are a number of ways that probiotics may reduce cholesterol .
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Management Of Vzv Disease: Bmt Patients
Primary infection with VZV causes chickenpox whereas reactivation of latent virus causes shingles . Chickenpox has a high mortality in immunocompromised patients but is fortunately rare in BMT recipients. Before the use of passive vaccination and acyclovir prophylaxis varicella occurred in 25% of children during the first 6 months after BMT.
Herpes zoster, on the other hand, is frequently seen as a relatively late complication after BMT, occurring within the first 210 months after BMT . Before the use of prophylaxis, about one-third of both autologous and allogeneic adult BMT patients experienced either localized or disseminated herpes zoster within the first year., Skin and visceral dissemination occur in 25% and 15%, respectively, of cases of herpes zoster in such patients: the mortality of this form of disease approaches 30%. Cutaneous dissemination of herpes zoster usually precedes visceral dissemination. Contralateral hemiparesis is also a recognized complication of ophthalmic herpes zoster.
Subclinical viraemia and clinical episodes of herpes zoster provide in vivo re-exposure to VZV antigens and help the recovery of virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell function. A recent study of varicella vaccine has shown that BMT recipients immunized with an inactivated varicella vaccine showed early reconstitution of immunity.
In the rare case of herpes zoster where the virus is resistant to acyclovir, foscarnet has been shown to be effective.
The Guts Impact On Cardiovascular Health: What We Know
In just the past few years, research studies have produced mounting evidence that an unhealthy gut microbiome can contribute to cardiovascular disease. Many studies have focused on an inflammatory marker called trimethylamineNoxide , which is produced due to the presence of certain unhealthy gut bacteria.
In a review of 19 studies on TMAO and cardiovascular risk, published in June 2017 in the Journal of the American Heart Association, researchers found that elevated TMAO was associated with a 62 percent higher risk of major cardiovascular events like heart attack and stroke, and a 63 percent higher risk of death from all causes, during the study period. These results were fairly consistent across the study populations, which included people undergoing elective coronary angiography and those with chronic kidney disease, with or without diabetes, with chronic or acute heart failure, and with coronary or peripheral artery disease.
A similar review of 17 studies on TMAO and heart risk, published in October 2017 in the European Heart Journal, found that high blood levels of TMAO were associated with a 67 percent higher risk of major cardiovascular events, along with a 91 percent higher risk of death from all causes. This death risk increased in proportion with levels of TMAO, not just at very high levels, and was consistent across the study populations.
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Best Probiotic Strains For Cholesterol Heart Health And Weight Management
Maintaining healthy cholesterol levels positively influences our heart health. Certain strains of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus have been recognised for their impact on cholesterol levels in the body.
- Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7527
- Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7528
- Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7529
The above strains were identified out of hundreds of screened strains to have excellent cholesterol removal ability and BSH activity in vitro5. In a gold standard trial including 60 individuals with raised cholesterol, the effects of the probiotic combination L. plantarum CECT 7527, L. plantarum CECT 7528 and L. plantarum CECT 7529 on cholesterol levels were assessed24. After three-months there were significant reductions in:
- Total cholesterol
Interestingly, those with higher starting values resulted in greater reductions after probiotic supplementation.
A more recent gold standard trial found the strains to be effective alongside red yeast rice extract25. After 12 weeks, participants displayed significant reductions in total cholesterol and LDL-C , similar results to the previous trial.
The strains have also demonstrated an excellent safety profile with no tolerability issues documented in the studies above. Another trial assessed the strains alongside a variety of medications including statins, fenofibrates, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and antiplatelets26. They were shown to be safe and effective with no tolerability issues related to probiotic intake.
They May Also Reduce Blood Pressure
High blood pressure is another risk factor for heart disease, and it may be lowered by certain probiotics.
One study of 36 smokers found that taking Lactobacilli plantarum for 6 weeks significantly reduced blood pressure .
However, not all probiotics are effective for improving heart health.
A separate study of 156 people with high blood pressure found that two types of probiotics, Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, had no beneficial effect on blood pressure when given in capsules or yogurt .
However, other large reviews combining the results from other studies have found an overall beneficial effect of certain probiotics on blood pressure.
One of these large studies found a reduction in blood pressure, especially under the following conditions (
- When blood pressure was high originally
- When multiple types of probiotics were taken at the same time
- When the probiotics were taken for more than 8 weeks
- When the dose was high
A larger study that combined the results of 14 other studies, including 702 people in total, found that probiotic fermented milk also significantly reduced blood pressure in people with high blood pressure .
Summary A number of studies have shown that certain probiotics can significantly reduce blood pressure, especially in people with high blood pressure.
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How Probiotics Might Be Bad For You
Because these good bacteria already exist in the body, theyÃ¢re considered safe for most people. But there are some things to consider.
They can trigger an allergic reaction. They might cause mild stomach problems, especially the first few days you start taking them. You might have stomach upset, gas, diarrhea, or bloating. Those symptoms usually go away after your body gets used to them.
If you have an immune system problem or another serious health condition, you may have a greater chance of issues. Some reports have linked probiotics to serious infections and other side effects. The people most likely to have trouble are those with immune system problems, people whoâve had surgery, and others who are critically ill. Donât take probiotics if you have any of those issues.
Always talk to your pediatrician before giving probiotic supplements to your child. If youâre pregnant or nursing, you should also talk to your doctor before you try one.
Most probiotics in the U.S. are sold as dietary supplements. That means the companies that make them donât have to test their products and show that they work or that they are safe. More research is needed to confirm that probiotics are safe and effective.
Ask your doctor which probiotics are the right ones for you. Be sure to stop taking them if you have any problems.
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Can Probiotics Be Harmful
- Probiotics have an extensive history of apparently safe use, particularly in healthy people. However, few studies have looked at the safety of probiotics in detail, so thereâs a lack of solid information on the frequency and severity of side effects.
- The risk of harmful effects from probiotics is greater in people with severe illnesses or compromised immune systems. When probiotics are being considered for high-risk individuals, such as premature infants or seriously ill hospital patients, the potential risks of probiotics should be carefully weighed against their benefits.
- Possible harmful effects of probiotics include infections, production of harmful substances by the probiotic microorganisms, and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from probiotic microorganisms to other microorganisms in the digestive tract.
- Some probiotic products have been reported to contain microorganisms other than those listed on the label. In some instances, these contaminants may pose serious health risks.
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Data Synthesis And Analysis
The continuous variables were expressed as weight mean difference and 95% CIs. Before the data were summarized, we first test the heterogeneity among the included studies using Q chi-square test , in which a P value < 0.10 or I2 > 50% was considered as significant heterogeneity .I2 statistic was used to describe the percentage of the variability that attributed to heterogeneity across the studies rather than the chance. Studies with an I2 statistic of < 25%, ~50%, ~75%, ~100% are considered to have no, low, moderate, and high degree of heterogeneity, respectively . When significant heterogeneity was identified, we used a random-effects model to pool the data otherwise, a fixed-effects model was used. Moreover, we also performed sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, andmeta-regression to investigate the potential sources of heterogeneity. The assessment of publication bias was evaluated by using Egger and Begger test . A P value less than 0.05 was judged as statistically significant, except where specified. Data were analyzed using Stata version 12.0 .
How To Prevent Heart Palpitations
A heart palpitation is the feeling of an irregular beating pattern of the heart. Usually, an episode can last between a second and up to a minute. A palpitation can be categorised into four different types:
An anxiety condition and the occurrence of heart palpitations seem to exist almost synonymously. Around 90% of the clients I have worked with have shared complaints of a rapid or distorted heartbeat whilst living with their anxiety condition. It is also extremely common for heart palpitations to exist alongside other symptoms of anxiety, such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome. bloating, exhaustion, insomnia, chest pains, etc.
Heart palpitations in most cases are harmless and act as an offshoot symptom of an anxiety problem. It is important to state that if you do have concerns then you should consult with your General Practitioner / Doctor as this is merely a representation of my opinion. Many of my clients have experienced palpitations for years and have found they die down completely when the core of the problem is addressed the anxiety.
Anxiety causes heart palpitations for several reasons:
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Can Probiotic Supplements Help Cholesterol Levels
Before we answer this question, lets briefly look at what cholesterol is and what it does in the body.
Cholesterol is a type of fat that is essential in the body to build cells and make hormones and bile. We get our cholesterol in part from our diet and it is also produced by our liver. Issues arise when cholesterol levels become too high, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. To maintain healthy cholesterol levels, a balanced diet and an active lifestyle with regular exercise is essential. It is common for individuals to also need cholesterol-lowering medication such as statins. Although effective at lowering cholesterol, statin side effects can be bothersome.
This means that natural methods and supplements to manage cholesterol levels are often sought by individuals to use alone or alongside statins, and there has been a lot of interest recently into whether probiotics are good for lowering cholesterol. In addition to other supplements associated with cholesterol management, natural practitioners and health stores are being increasingly asked if there are probiotics for high cholesterol. Certainly, probiotics are an attractive option for those who are looking for a safe and natural supplement to support healthy cholesterol levels, as are certain other plant extracts which act as natural statins.
What Has Science Shown About The Effectiveness Of Probiotics For Health Conditions
A great deal of research has been done on probiotics, but much remains to be learned about whether theyâre helpful and safe for various health conditions.
Probiotics have shown promise for a variety of health purposes, including prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea , prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and in premature infants, treatment of infant colic, treatment of periodontal disease, and induction or maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis.
However, in most instances, we still donât know which probiotics are helpful and which are not. We also donât know how much of the probiotic people would have to take or who would be most likely to benefit. Even for the conditions that have been studied the most, researchers are still working toward finding the answers to these questions.
The following sections summarize the research on probiotics for some of the conditions for which theyâve been studied.
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Clinical Manifestations Of Microbiome Disruption
Differences in microbiota after transplantation can be associated with clinically significant events. Decreased Firmicutes in small bowel recipients has been associated with acute rejection . In lung transplant patients, restoration of microbiota diversity decreased the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome . Bronchial samples containing greater than 10% Pseudomonas aeruginosa were associated with symptomatic infection, while those containing greater than 10% P.fluorescens were not. No sample had greater than 10% of both species . Such changes, however, are difficult to interpret in the presence of concomitant antimicrobial administration.
Fricke et al. demonstrated that major shifts in microbiota composition were identifiable at one month after renal transplant . In another study of 26 renal transplant recipients, Lee at al. identified increased Proteobacteria species in rectal microbiota at 90 days . Patients with post-transplant diarrhea had reduced microbiota diversity, with reduced Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, Coprococcus, and Dorea. Patients with abundant Enterococcus in rectal stool samples were more likely to have an Enterococcus urinary tract infection .
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What Happens After A Kidney Transplant
After kidney transplant surgery, your child will spend a few days in the hospital to recover. The health care team will watch closely to make sure there are no complications from the surgery, such as bleeding or infection.
You and your child will learn about the medicines needed to keep the body from rejecting the new kidney. These are called immunosuppressants. Taking them can make your child more likely to get infections, especially in the days right after surgery. So keep your child away from sick people, and have everyone at home wash their hands well and often.
For the first couple of months after surgery, youll see the doctor often to make sure the new kidney is working well. If your child gets a fever or soreness in the area of the transplant, tell a doctor right away. These could be signs that the body isnt accepting the new kidney or that your child has an infection.
Balance Good & Bad Cholesterol
Some studies show that probiotics promote normal HDL and LDL , as well as total blood cholesterol levels.
Thirty-two different controlled trials dating between 2007 and 2017 showed that total cholesterol levels normalized in subjects taking probiotics for six weeks, compared to those in the control group, who saw no change.
The studies even showed that taking supplements in capsule form, rather than trying to get probiotics from food, may have had even more of an effect on cholesterol levels.