What Are The Main Causes Of Cancer
Its a fact of life that some of your body cells are going to turn out less than perfect and wont function properly.
Normally, your body recognizes these cells and destroys them before they can do any damage to the cells around them. But when these malfunctioning cells go unnoticed, it can get dangerous. They can start growing unchecked and turn into a cancerous tumor.
So, the key to understanding what causes cancer is to understand what makes some cells turn bad and why your system sometimes overlooks them.
Effects Of The Host On Probiotics
It has been reported that the same strain has differential effects on host physiology. Distinct from medicines, the efficacy of probiotics varies greatly from individual to individual. Age, physical condition, intestinal microbial composition, colonization permission and diet of the host all contribute to the heterogeneity of the effect . In infants and young children whose immune function is not yet fully developed, during the first month after birth, the development of intestinal flora is essential for the balanced development of the babyâs immune system. Bifidobacterium in breast milk is not only noncytotoxic but also has good immunostimulatory ability, but there is insufficient evidence to show that supplementation with probiotics is beneficial to infant health . In an observational study, although probiotic supplementation increased infant sIgA response, the incidence of mucosa-related diseases was higher in early childhood . Compared to healthy adults, the beneficial effects of probiotic exposure in infancy were not only limited but were also related to increased infections later in life .
Bacterial Strains And Growth Condition
The L. casei CECT 475 T strain was isolated from kefir manufactured in the Lactology Laboratory of the Universidad Pública de Navarra, whereas the B. bifidum strain was obtained from the Spanish Collection of Cultures with the number CECT 870. Both strains were used in this study as probiotics. Both bacteria were grown in autoclaved skim milk , at 37 °C for 24 h under aerobic conditions for L. casei and at 39 °C for 72 h under microaerophilic conditions for B. bifidum in the presence of 5% CO2. The cell pellets were resuspended in 10% Difco skim milk at a final concentration of 108 CFU/ml for each strain.
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Correlation Between The Microbiome And Cancer Treatment Effectiveness
While the results of these studies certainly cannot be directly applied to humans, they suggest that the effectiveness of many cancer therapies likely rely, at least in part, on the function of the microbiome. It is further speculated that this may mean the use of certain antibiotics may dampen the effect of certain anti-cancer therapies . Research in human models including a prospective cohort study evaluating whether microbiota composition is correlated with the effectiveness of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer is ongoing .
Dna Isolation And 16s Rrna Gene Sequencing
DNA was extracted from the samples with the Promega Wizard Genomic DNA Purification Kit as described previously, followed by PCR inhibitor removal with OneStep-96 PCR Inhibitor Removal Kit , and DNA concentration measurement with Qubit 2.0 Fluorometer . The microbiota composition was analysed by targeted PCR amplification of the V4 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and archaea. Microbial DNA was amplified in triplicate PCR with primers 515F and 806R as described., The PCR amplification proceeded at 95°C for 3min for initial denaturation, followed by 30 cycles at 95°C for 45s, 55°C for 60s and 72°C for 90s and final extension of 10min at 72°C. PCR products were purified and normalised using the SequalPrep Normalisation Plate Kit . Paired-end 250bp reads were generated from amplicon libraries with the MiSeq instrument .
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Statistics And Network Analyses
Group comparisons for diversity metrics were conducted within QIIME and graphed using Prism V.7 . -Diversity comparisons and group distances for -diversity were generated with a non-parametric t-test using 1000 Monte Carlo permutations. Discriminate taxa between groups were identified with the Wilcoxon rank sum test in QIIME. Adjusted p values controlling the false discovery rate are reported where appropriate.
A correlation network analysis was constructed for tumour samples using the CoNet software for genus-summarised abundance data and clinical factors of disease and tumour severity. Pairwise correlations , Bray Curtis dissimilarity and Kullback-Leibler divergence were used to create an initial association network. The edgeScores randomisation routine was used where row-wise permutations were calculated with 100 iterations and the 1000 highest and lowest scoring edges were retained. Renormalisation option was enabled. A second network was created with 100 bootstrap iterations and merged into one final network. The p values were merged using the Brown option and adjusted with the Benjamini-Hochberg FDR correction at a threshold of 5%. Only significant edges supported by a minimum of two methods were retained. The network was visualised in Cytoscape .
The Probiotic Mixture Inhibited The Tumor Invasion And Increased Tumor Immunity
The tumor tissues and spleens were sampled from both groups of CT26 tumor-bearing mice to determine whether the probiotic mixture treatment induced any histopathological changes. HE staining revealed that compared to the control, a higher number of apoptotic cells was observed in the tumors of mice treated with the probiotic mixture . Furthermore, immunohistochemical analyses of CD8 expression, the expression of CD8 in tumor and spleen were stronger than that in control group .
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Hematoxylin & Eosin Staining And Immunohistochemistry
After the mice were sacrificed at the designated time, tissue samples, including the tumor and the spleen, were harvested. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and observed under light microscopy.
Tissue sections were dewaxed and hydrated using a xylene and gradient alcohol series and rinsed with PBS for 5 minutes. The sections were then incubated in methanol or a 0.3% hydrogen peroxide solution for 30 minutes to quench the activity of the endogenous peroxidase, and washed in buffer for 5 minutes. Subsequently, the tissue was incubated at room temperature with diluted normal serum for 20 minutes . After blotting the excess serum, the sections were incubated with a primary antibody for 30 minutes followed by a 5-minute buffer wash. Sections were then incubated for 30 minutes with a diluted biotinylated secondary antibody solution and washed for 5 minutes in buffer. Next, sections were incubated for 30 minutes with VECTASTAIN ABC reagent followed by a 5-minute buffer wash. Lastly, the sections were incubated in peroxidase substrate solution until the desired stain intensity had developed. Slides were then rinsed under tap water.
For Patients & Caregivers
Tell your healthcare providers about any dietary supplements youre taking, such as herbs, vitamins, minerals, and natural or home remedies. This will help them manage your care and keep you safe.
Probiotics are made of good bacteria and yeast. The good bacteria helps to fight off issues caused by bad bacteria, such as problems with digestion and bowel function. Taking probiotics helps balance out the bacteria in your stomach and can help you feel better.
Probiotics are found in many foods and drinks like yogurt, kefir, miso, and sauerkraut, and cottage cheese. You can also take probiotics as a dietary supplement in many forms that include:
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Foods That Can Help Reduce Your Risk Of Colon Cancer
It may not get as much press as many other types of cancer, but colon cancer can be very deadly, particularly if you follow a diet that raises your risk of developing it. Unlike many other types of cancer, diet is a crucial part of colon cancer because the part of the body affected is a critical part of the digestive process.
Some foods, such as processed meats, have been shown to significantly increase ones chances of having colon cancer emerge. That begs the question what foods will actually lower my risk of developing colon cancer? The good news is that there are a wide variety of healthy and delicious foods that can help you keep colon cancer at bay. Lets take a quick look at some of those foods now.
Reviewprobiotics For Cancer Alternative Prevention And Treatment
Probiotics are the alternative drugs for various cancers.
We reviewed the role of probiotics as alternative cancer prevention and treatment.
Live and dead probiotics play vital roles in cancer prevention and treatment.
Metabolic products from probiotics are used for cancer prevention and treatment.
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Mechanisms Of Crc Prevention Exerted By Probiotics
Despite the great number of studies in the literature, the precise mechanisms by which probiotics may prevent CRC still remain not perfectly clear. However, it is conceivable that they include: alteration of the intestinal microflora inactivation of cancerogenic compounds competition with putrefactive and pathogenic microbiota improvement of the hosts immune response anti-proliferative effects via regulation of apoptosis and cell differentiation fermentation of undigested food inhibition of tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. The coadministration of probiotics with prebiotics , the so-called synbiotics, can increase the effectiveness of these anti-cancer mechanisms . Moreover, the acidification of pH, although not considered as a distinct mechanism of action, is an intrinsic and fundamental feature whereby many probiotics carry out their metabolic activities . These potential mechanisms will be discussed individually now.
Selection Process Of Included Studies
The primary article screening will be carried out independently by two reviewers. Titles and abstract of the studies will be screened independently, and the selected studies will be divided into three groups: relevant, irrelevant and unsure. The studies which are categorised as irrelevant by both reviewers will then be eliminated from the review. The full text of the remaining studies will be then reviewed by both reviewers using the eligibility criteria and studies that meet all the criteria will be included. In case of discrepancy, the two reviewers will first meet to discuss their choices and a final decision will be made. If there is any misunderstanding or conflict a third opinion will be sought from the other reviewers and when an agreement is reached, a final decision will be made.
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What Can I Do To Reduce My Risk Of Colorectal Cancer
Ive been screened twice. I made everybody I love get screened, says actress Meryl Streep in this video.People that are screened early and find cancer and are treated earlytheyre alive because of that early detection.
Overall, the most effective way to reduce your risk of colorectal cancer is to get screened for colorectal cancer routinely, beginning at age 45.
Almost all colorectal cancers begin as precancerous polyps in the colon or rectum. Such polyps can be present in the colon for years before invasive cancer develops. They may not cause any symptoms, especially early on. Colorectal cancer screening can find precancerous polyps so they can be removed before they turn into cancer. In this way, colorectal cancer is prevented. Screening can also find colorectal cancer early, when treatment works best.
Probiotics May Prevent Colon Cancer
Could these good bugs stop cancer before it starts?
Ive often said that good health begins and ends in your gut. And when youve got colon cancer, you realize just how true that is.
The staggering pain and toilet troubles arent even the worst of it because about a THIRD of those diagnosed with colon cancer dont even live more than another five years!
We dont know exactly what causes this type of cancer, but we do know that inflammation is one of the likely culprits and that those with inflammatory bowel diseases like ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease are more at risk of developing it.
But according to a new study, colon cancer doesnt have to be the end of you because a certain probiotic can reduce inflammation in your gut and even rein in tumor growth.
In the study published in the American Journal of Pathology, mice whose guts lacked a certain enzyme called histidine decarbosylase the SAME enzyme that people with colon cancer often lack were given chemicals known to bring on gut inflammation and tumor growth.
Some of the mice received a probiotic called Lactobacillus reuteri 6745 before and after the chemical dose, while the rest received a placebo.
The theory for why that might be is a little complicated, but bear with me.
But since Lactobacillus reuteri 6745 is known to PRODUCE histamine, the presumption is that it can make up for having too little HDC.
And be sure to get regular colonoscopies, which absolutely save lives.
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Probiotic And Cancer Therapy
Advances have been made over the last century to develop anticancer drugs that lead to drastically reducing of the side effects of medications . However, the beneficial effects of probiotics on metabolic profiles and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were previously reported . Modifying the intestinal microbiome with oral probiotics has been applied to decrease side effects associated with drugs. The adverse effects caused by anticancer treatments mainly include mucositis and diarrhea. Among the advantages of probiotics are their low cost and general safety . Probiotic application in clinical practice has displayed a wide range of advantages, such as improving antibiotics and Clostridium difficile-related diarrhea and respiratory tract infections . Populating the gut microbiota in cancer patients with probiotics re-establishes both the functionality and quantities of commensal bacteria, which are reduced after treatments . Nonetheless, probiotic administration in several clinical trials has been shown to re-establish healthy intestinal microbiota composition and to diminish diarrhea and other treatment-related damages to the gut, such as mucositis . Consistently, Lactobacillus containing probiotics prevent diarrhea and mucositis in individuals, who received chemotherapy/radiotherapy for pelvic malignancy .
How Probiotics Reduce Tumor Formation
In a study that is still ongoing on mice, it was discovered that that the lack of an enzyme known as histidine decarboxylase significantly made the animals susceptible to acquiring colon cancer related to inflammation of the bowels.
HDC is usually formed by L. reuteri and is responsible for converting L-histidine to histamine an organic compound that regulates the immune response in the body.
The mice were given L. reuteri before and after the induction of tumor in their bodies via the administration of azoxymethane, DSS, and a carcinogenic chemical.
Fifteen weeks later, scientists examined the gastrointestinal tracts of the mice. They found that the L. reuteri caused a stimulation that led to the production of HDC something that increased the level of histamine in the colon.
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Probiotics In Colon Cancer Prevention And Treatment
Natural sources which confer anti-carcinogenic effects for the prevention of colon cancer, such as probiotics, have been receiving important focus in recent years .
One promising application for the treatment of colorectal cancer is the human microbiota manipulation, and as a consequence, the use of selective probiotics. To my knowledge there are few preliminary studies, especially randomized and controlled, that evaluate whether manipulation of the microbiota in patients receiving treatment for colorectal cancer may affect outcomes, such as the objective response rate or progression-free survival.
Nevertheless, it has been widely demonstrated that the regular consumption of probiotics can reduce intestinal permeability by changing the distribution of cell junction proteins and decreasing the amount of potential carcinogenic compounds absorbed and acting negatively on the colonocytes. Treatment with a mixture of probiotics in individuals with CRC improved the outcome and increased the amount of cell junction proteins as well as their distribution throughout the colonic epithelium .
The proapoptotic activity induced by the consumption of probiotics, especially by increasing TNF- production, is another factor well investigated in human cancer . Wan et al. concluded that the ability to induce apoptosis of the tumor cells by the probiotic L. delbrueckii was a consequence of the increased expression of caspase-3 inducing aptoptosis.
Eligibility Criteria For Included Studies
The inclusion criteria include studies on patients with CRC who are were treated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery. The included studies must be carried out as randomised controlled trials with either a comparator group, control group or placebo group. Details of the inclusion and exclusion criteria that will be used in the systematic review is in .
Eligibility criteria based on PICOS model
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Probiotics Fiber And Water Help Prevent Colon Cancer
A healthy colon is essential for overall wellness, and you can nurture your gut by making a few nutritional changes.
The large intestine, or colon, is responsible for digesting food, processing waste and supporting immunity. A well-balanced diet and proper hydration will help maintain colon function and prevent digestive disease. Colon cancer is the third-leading cause of cancer death in the United States, but most cases of colon cancer are preventable through positive lifestyle changes and routine colonoscopies.
You can be an advocate for your own colon health by consuming more fiber, probiotics and water.
Benefits of a High-Fiber Include Colon Cancer Prevention
Fiber is non-digestible plant material found in skins and peels of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Eating five to nine servings of fresh fruits and vegetables and three to four servings of whole grains provides adequate fiber to meet the daily recommended allowance. Men should consume at least 38 grams of fiber per day and women should consume 25 grams per day.
Good sources of fiber include black beans, split peas, brown rice, oatmeal, wheat germ, oat bran, baked potato, flaxseed meal, chia seeds, avocados, pears and apples.
Proper hydration is essential for colon health. Water is necessary for absorbing vitamins and minerals and removing toxins from the liver and kidneys. Water also binds with fiber to create bulk in the stool and helps move solid waste through the digestive tract.