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Role Of Probiotics In Human Health

Probiotics May Reduce The Severity Of Certain Allergies And Eczema

Role of Probiotics in Human Health

Certain probiotic strains may reduce the severity of eczema in children and infants.

One study found eczema symptoms improved for infants fed probiotic-supplemented milk, compared to infants fed milk without probiotics .

Another study followed children of women who took probiotics during pregnancy. Those children had an 83% lower risk of developing eczema in the first two years of life .

However, the link between probiotics and reduced eczema severity is still weak and more research needs to be done .

Some probiotics may also reduce inflammatory responses in people with milk or dairy allergies. However, the evidence is weak and further studies are needed .

Bottom Line:

Probiotics may reduce the risk and severity of certain allergies, such as eczema in infants. However, more research is needed.

Fermented Foods: Another Source Of Probiotics

Fermented foods and beverages have a long and important cultural and culinary history . Fermented milk, meat and plant-based foods have been dietary staples for thousands of years . Several properties likely contributed to the popularity of these products. Fermented foods are well-preserved and would have provided a stable food source when fresh foods were scarce. Fermented foods and beverages also have unique sensory properties that would have appealed to consumers. Enhanced functionality â for example, converting simple cereal grains into bread or beer â would have also led to widespread appreciation of fermented foods.

In the past century, and especially the past decade, the nutritional benefits of fermented foods have been recognised. These foods are usually made from nutrient-dense starting materials such as milk, meat, grains and legumes that are already good sources of protein, vitamins and minerals. However, fermented foods may possess benefits beyond these major nutrients. In particular, emerging evidence suggests that the live microorganisms present in fermented foods contribute to both gastrointestinal and systemic health .

In addition, it is now a common practice to add specific probiotic microorganisms to fermented foods. Thus, many of the commercial yogurt and cultured milk products now contain probiotic strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. In these applications, the fermented food becomes the delivery vehicle for the probiotic.

Prebiotics And Gut Immunity

Prebiotics are broadly defined as a food ingredient that is composed of oligosaccharides that are not digestible by the host and that has a beneficial effect on host health through selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of specific members of the gut microbiota . Currently, only inulin and galacto-oligosaccharides, which are natural food ingredients that are present in certain plants as storage carbohydrates, fulfill all of the criteria for prebiotic classification. Although the previous definition of prebiotics is only applicable to selectively fermented food components, and although much of the prebiotic literature focuses on non-digestible oligosaccharides, most dietary fibers that are fermentable carbohydrates could be considered as prebiotics as well. We hypothesize that any type of dietary or food supplement that could promote the growth of beneficial bacteria and consequently promote homeostasis in the gut and good health could be considered as a prebiotic, even though the supplement may not meet the required criteria.

Table 4. Main benefits of the major prebiotics and potential mechanisms of action.

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Clinical Evidence Supporting The Role Of Probiotics In Diabetes

Effect on glycaemic parameters

Clinical trials of probiotic use in patients with diabetes, as well as healthy individuals, are summarised in Table 2. Probiotics were found to lower fasting blood glucose, insulin levels, and improve glycosylated haemoglobin and insulin resistance .

Table 2: Overview of important clinical studies demonstrating the effect of probiotics on metabolic profiles in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.B. species: Bifidobacterium GSH: glutathione HbA1c: glycated haemoglobin HDL: high-density lipoprotein hs-CRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein IL: interleukin L. species: Lactobacillus MDA: malondialdehyde PC: placebo controlled TG: triglyceride TNF: tumour necrosis factor.

A meta-analysis of 12 randomised controlled trials with reported lipid profiles , fasting blood glucose , HOMA-IR , and HbA1c concluded that probiotics could reduce fasting blood glucose levels by around 15 mg/dL and HbA1c by 0.54% , along with a significant improvement of 0.98 in HOMA-IR values, indicating a modest effect on glycaemic control. This analysis elucidated that probiotics may improve glycaemic control and lipid metabolism in T2DM.38

A recent meta-analysis of 12 RCT involving 770 patients with T2DM showed that probiotics could significantly reduce fasting blood glucose by 11.27 mg/dL and serum insulin concentration by 2.36 U/mL , but with no significant reduction in HbA1c . Probiotics could significantly reduce HOMA-IR in T2DM patients .40


Can Probiotics Hurt Me

How To Choose The Right Probiotic Supplement And What To ...

For most healthy people, probiotics dont cause any harm. They are generally considered safe and are often given a try to see if they could help with various medical conditions. Theres a lot of research around the topic of probiotics. Scientists are trying to determine when and how they should be used, as well as how effective they are. Talk to your healthcare provider before starting a probiotic supplement because there are some cases where you shouldnt be taking them. Its always best to have the conversation first before starting a new supplement.

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Conditions Predisposing To Altered Gut Flora

High dietary fat, obesity, and diabetes all predispose individuals to an altered microbiota. It was found that in rats given a high-fat diet, the proportions of Bacteroides, Clostridium, and Enterobacteriaceae species increased, whereas the total bacterial density was reduced.27 Gut microbial dysbiosis and an increase in opportunistic pathogens, along with a reduction of butyrate producing bacteria, were seen in patients with T2DM.16 One of the reasons for an altered gut flora associated with a high-fat diet can be an altered bacterial adhesion to the gut mucosa.28 In another discovery, the fasting and fed states in mice correlated with a reduction and an increase in metabolic endotoxaemia, respectively. Furthermore, when the mice were given a high- fat diet for 4 weeks, the levels of LPS-containing bacteria in the gut increased chronically.25

Molecular Characterization Of Probiotics Marker Genes And Surface Layer Protein

In view of high stakes involved in the exploration of their commercial value, particularly in the booming functional/health food market, the correct identification of probiotic cultures has become extremely important to rule out the possibility of false claims and to resolve disputes concerning their identity in probiotic preparations . The phylogenetic information encoded by 16S rRNA gene has enabled the development of molecular biology techniques, which allow the characterization of the whole human gut microbiota . These techniques have been used in monitoring the specific strains as they have high discriminating power. Numerous molecular techniques have been exploited for the identification of various putative probiotic marker genes such as bile salt hydrolase , mucus-binding protein , fibronectin-binding protein for the screening of probiotic strains.

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Probiotics For Human Use

International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, Centennial, CO, USA

Correspondence: Dr. Mary Ellen Sanders, PhD, Executive Science Officer, International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, 7119 S. Glencoe Ct., Centennial, CO 80122, USA.

International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, Centennial, CO, USA

Correspondence: Dr. Mary Ellen Sanders, PhD, Executive Science Officer, International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, 7119 S. Glencoe Ct., Centennial, CO 80122, USA.

What Happens If Homeostasis Is Broken

The Role of Gut Microbiota in Health – Probiotics

The term dysbiosis refers to microbial imbalances on or within the body. When homeostasis is broken, different subdominant opportunistic bacteria can grow leading to a situation of illness. Additionally, when commensal bacteria are depleted, an abnormal health situation can be triggered due to a lack of the benefits these bacteria provide rather than the overgrowth of pathobionts.

a) Binomial dysbiosis illness

Even if the composition of the human microbiota is different in each individual, changes in phylogenic distribution have also been specifically found in obese and diabetic individuals versus normal ones . The importance of the human microbiota has been demonstrated in the hygiene hypothesis, defined in 1989 by Strachan who postulated that low exposure to infectious agents in early life explains the increased numbers of people suffering from allergies and asthma in developed countries. This hypothesis suggests that a well-balanced human microbiota is a factor that protects from such pathologies.

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Validation Of Health Claims

To validate or substantiate a health-related claim, the proposed relationship between the product and the health-related end point should be identified, and appropriate measurements of both should be indicated. The interests of patients and consumer involvement are becoming integral part of clinical development and should be taken into consideration. For regulatory purposes, health-related claims require sound evidence from all available sources. Positive evidence should not be outweighed by negative evidence, and sufficient evidence based on human experience should be available to support the safety and efficacy, including pre- and postmarketing experience. The greater the consistency of evidence from different sources, the stronger the evidence will be.

The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 gives the US Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate health claims on food labels. These claims describe the link between specific nutrients or substances in food, and a particular disease or health-related condition. The process of reviewing the scientific evidence of health claims involves the following steps: define the substancedisease relationship that is the subject of the claim, identify relevant studies, classify the studies, rate the studies on the basis of quality, rate the studies on the basis of the strength of their body of evidence, and report the studies’ rank order.

Probiotics Help Balance The Friendly Bacteria In Your Digestive System

Probiotics include good bacteria. These are live microorganisms that can provide health benefits when consumed .

These benefits are thought to result from the ability of probiotics to restore the natural balance of gut bacteria .

An imbalance means there are too many bad bacteria and not enough good bacteria. It can happen due to illness, medication such as antibiotics, poor diet and more.

Consequences can include digestive issues, allergies, mental health problems, obesity and more .

Probiotics are usually found in fermented foods or taken as supplements. Whats more, they appear to be safe for most people.

Bottom Line:

Probiotics are live microorganisms. When taken in sufficient amounts, they can help restore the natural balance of gut bacteria. As a result, health benefits may follow.

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Probiotics: An Additional Bacterial Advantage For Humans

Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. This concept is based on the observations made by Élie Metchnikoff in 1907 in which the regular consumption of Lactic Acid Bacteria in fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, was associated with enhanced health and longevity in many people living in Bulgarian villages.

Most probiotics belong to LAB, but new species and genera are being assessed for future use. Some other well-known probiotics are Bifidobacterium sp., one strain of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii.

However, not all microorganisms are beneficial and screenings in order to identify novel candidate probiotics with immunomodulatory properties are frequently performed. In fact, a Dutch trial using a probiotic preparation in patients with acute pancreatitis showed to be harmful. These negative results show how important it is to choose the right protocol and to make a careful selection when using probiotics in humans. Certainly, a supposed beneficial effect of a specific strain cannot be extrapolated to another strain even within to the same species.

Probiotics Can Help Prevent And Treat Diarrhea


Probiotics are widely known for their ability to prevent diarrhea or reduce its severity.

Diarrhea is a common side effect of taking antibiotics. It occurs because antibiotics can negatively affect the balance of good and bad bacteria in the gut (

15 ).

A review of 15 human studies found supplementing with Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains for 12 months can improve anxiety, depression, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder and memory .

One study followed 70 chemical workers for 6 weeks. Those who consumed 100 grams of probiotic yogurt per day or took a daily probiotic capsule experienced benefits for general health, depression, anxiety and stress .

Benefits were also seen in a study of 40 patients with depression.

Taking probiotic supplements for 8 weeks decreased depression levels and reduced levels of C-reactive protein and hormones such as insulin, compared to people who did not take a probiotic .

Bottom Line:

Research shows taking probiotics may help improve symptoms of mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, stress and memory, among others.

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Health Benefits Of Probiotics: Evidence For Specific Effects

This section focuses on clinically relevant endpoints from human studies that are associated with probiotic use. Evidence must be viewed as being applicable to the specific probiotics and doses tested not all strains of probiotics will be functional for all the endpoints listed. Table summarises the range of benefits that have been tested in randomised controlled trials for some probiotics. As with all intervention substances, including drugs, supplements and foods, there are null trials in probiotics. Null trials provide important lessons to better understand the limitations of certain probiotic interventions and indications. However, it is important to consider these results in the context of the totality of evidence.

NNT = 42 for hospitalised children or adults Goldenberg et al.
  • NNT, number needed to treat

Many researchers have considered the totality of evidence for probiotics on a given endpoint by conducting a systematic review that includes studies on different strains. However, not all probiotic strains can be expected to be equally effective clinically. To the extent that common mechanisms among different strains drive the observed clinical benefits, it is scientifically sound to consider evidence on similar but not identical interventions , as is often done for drugs as can be seen in this meta-analysis of all antibiotics for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations .

Nutritional Benefits And Role Of Probiotics In The Modulation Of Human Health

Rishabha Malviya1, Hema Arya2*, Vinod Kumar3, Nidhi Kala1,4 Akanksha Sharma1, Koushal Dhamija5, Vandana2 and Ramji Gupta1

1Department of Pharmacy, School of Medical and Allied Sciences Galgotias University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

2School of Pharmacy, Sharda University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

3B.S. College of Pharmcy, Fatehullapur, Ghaziapur, Uttar Pradesh, India

4Saraswati College of Pharmacy, Pilkhua, Hapur, Uttar Pradesh, India

5Department of Pharmacy, Lloyd Institute of Management and Technology, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Corresponding author email:

Accepted After Revision: 21/03/2021


Probiotics Nutritional Benefit Lactobacillus Bifidobacteria Eukaryotic Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome H. Pylori

Copy the following to cite this article:

Malviya R, Arya H, Kumar V, Kala N, Sharma A, Dhamija K, Vandana, Gupta R. Nutritional Benefits And Role of Probiotics in the Modulation of Human Health. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2021 14.

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Malviya R, Arya H, Kumar V, Kala N, Sharma A, Dhamija K, Vandana, Gupta R. Nutritional Benefits And Role of Probiotics in the Modulation of Human Health. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2021 14. Available from: < a href=> < /a>

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How Should People Take Probiotics

The requirements for a microbe to be considered a probiotic are that the microbe must be alive when administered, it must be documented to have a health benefit, and it must be administered at levels to confer a health benefit. A rule of thumb often cited is to take at least a billion colony forming units daily.

These are live microorganisms that will not provide the promised benefits if they don’t remain alive. The manufacturer and consumer must pay close attention to the conditions of storage at which the particular microorganism will survive and the end of their shelf life. The potency will indicate the number of viable bacteria per dose, and the purity has to do with presence of contaminating or ineffective bacteria.

The other thing to remember is that these microorganisms are not all created equally. In fact, the genus, strain, and species all need to be the same for the results that found in the study to be the results that one hopes to achieve when taking it. For example, with the strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, the genus is Lactobacillus, the species is rhamnosus, and the strain is GG. If any one of those is different in your supplement, you may not attain the same results.

Do Probiotics Have Any Benefit For Generally Healthy People

Probiotics and Digestive Health

Probiotic intervention studies have been conducted on healthy or âat-riskâ subjects targeting diverse clinical endpoints. Taken together, these studies suggest that there may be some benefit in free-living, generally healthy people. For example, studies have shown that probiotics can modestly decrease the incidence and duration of common upper respiratory tract infections in children. Some evidence exists for certain probiotics to help manage blood lipids in people with mild hypercholesterolemia . Probiotics can improve lactose digestion in lactose intolerant people, with most evidence showing that lactose consumed in yogurt with live cultures is better tolerated than the same amount of lactose consumed without live cultures . A recent systematic review evaluated the role of probiotics in the management of lower gastrointestinal symptoms . Included studies covered a range of symptoms experienced by healthy subjects or subjects with minor gastrointestinal symptoms. Consensus statements were considered by a panel of 14 experts on behalf of the European Society for Primary Care Gastroenterology. In short, the panel agreed that specific probiotics should be tried or considered for management of several symptoms of IBS, although not all probiotics showed benefit. Observed benefits for IBS may be of modest magnitude, strain-specific and depend on the host physiology, diet and colonising microbiota.

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Probiotics In The 21st Century

Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host . This definition was issued by a consensus panel convened by the International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics , which met to discuss the modern relevance of the 2001 Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization definition of probiotics . In short, the panel reaffirmed all of the major principles of the 2001 definition.

âProbioticsâ comprise many different types of microbes. It is important, therefore, to remember that they are described by their genus, species and strain designations. Using the example of one well-studied probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG â Lactobacillus is the genus, rhamnosus is the species and GG is the strain designation. All three components are necessary to identify a probiotic. The full name enables the reader to link the specific strain to studies describing health benefits and safety assessments. Further, health benefits shown for one strain may not be established for another strain, even of the same species, although at times common mechanisms among different strains may result in similar clinical outcomes.

Figure 1

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