Bacteria Do Not Colonize The Gut Before Birth Study Shows
PhD students Katherine Kennedy and Patrycja Jazwiec in the Sloboda lab at McMaster. Collaborative research led by Kennedy, Sloboda and researchers from Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin in Germany has found colonization of infants guts occurs during and after birth, and not before.
May 12, 2021
It is well known that each persons gut bacteria is vital for digestion and overall health, but when does that gut microbiome start?
New research led by scientists from McMaster University and Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin in Germany has found it happens during and after birth, and not before.
McMaster researchers Deborah Sloboda and Katherine Kennedy examined prenatal stool samples collected from 20 babies during breech Cesarean delivery.
The key takeaway from our study is we are not colonized before birth. Rather, our relationship with our gut bacteria emerges after birth and during infancy, said Kennedy, first author of the study and a PhD student, whose findings are published in Nature Microbiology.
Recent studies have sparked controversy by claiming that we are colonized by gut bacteria before birth. But, Kennedy said, studies such as these have been criticized for the ways they control for contamination.
Kennedy said recent data suggest that a persons relationship with their own gut bacteria is most important in early life, during critical stages of immunological and physiological development.
The Fecal Microbiome Is Not The Same As The Gut Microbiome
Study #1 is aligned with prior findings that suggest fecal samples are a poor indicator of gut microbial composition. This is why I dont put too much stock in uBiome results, as much as I find them fascinating. I still believe comprehensive stool analysis is useful, as it can help screen for potential pathogens, parasites, and yeast, among other important markers.
However, I take any bacterial abundance information with a grain of salt and recognize that it is not directly representative of community dynamics in the gut environment. I am increasingly using a combination of comprehensive stool analysis, PCR-based stool testing, organic acids testing, and SIBO breath testing with my clients to provide a better overall picture of whats going on in the gut.
Choosing The Right Strain Is Crucial
Recent research has IDd a few different magical microorganisms that may help, depending on your health issue, so make sure you have the right strain:
If youre healthy and want to stay that wayShoot for 50 to 100 billion CFUs of a combo of lactobcillus and bifidobacterium. Starting with a large amount of CFUs will either keep you riding high or trigger small but yucky reactions, like gas or nausea. If you notice those, scale back to 50 billion, then 20 bill, until you feel like your usual self. If you have annoying tummy troublesAllow your predominant symptoms to guide you. Bloated and constipated? Look for lactobacillus acidophilus or lactobacillus casei, which help restore gut flora. Cant stop going number two? Types with saccharomyces boulardii can ease antibiotic-associated diarrhea and even prevent extreme cases caused by infections.
If you get recurring yeast infectionsThe itch-meets-ouch infection is caused by an overgrowth of bad bacteria. To recolonize your vagina, you want the good bacteria thats found there: lactobacillus acidophilus.Go the direct route. Use 2 to 5 billion CFUs in an OTC probiotic suppository, or wet an oral capsule to soften, then insert it. Pros suggest doing this every other day at the end of your period (three times total for prevention.
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Finding #: The Normal Microbiome Inhibits Probiotic Colonization
The authors hypothesized that the mice were not colonized by the probiotics because their normal, commensal microbiome was resistant to the supplemented strains.
To test this, they used germ-free mice, which are raised in sterile incubators with no exposure to microbes. These previously sterile mice were given the same 11-strain probiotic supplement for 14 days.
In the absence of a normal microbiome, the mice had massive colonization of the probiotic strains. This confirmed that commensal microbes were inhibiting the colonization of the probiotic strains.
The authors summarized their findings:
Taken together, these findings suggest that despite daily administration, human-targeted probiotics feature low-level murine mucosal colonization, mediated by resistance exerted by the indigenous murine gut microbiome.
Category : Lactobacillusand Bifidobacterium Probiotic Blends
This category of probiotics is the most well-researched, with over 500 clinical trials. These live microorganisms are also known as lactic-acid producing probiotic bacteria. They typically do not colonize you, but do improve your health.
This category of probiotics usually contains a blend of various Lactobacillus species and Bifidobacterium species.
- Most Lactobacilli species are transient but important There are over a hundred species.
- Bifidobacterium typically reside in the large intestine There are over thirty species.
Examples of Type 1 Probiotic Strains
In other words, Saccharomyces boulardii helps fight the bad bugs.
Although S. boulardii does not appear to colonize the gut, Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source it has shown some pretty impressive results, including the ability to correct dysbiosis . Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
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Probiotics For Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory Bowel Disease is a general category ofdigestive disorders including Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis. IBDpatients experience regular inflammatory flares of the gut lining, and mayexperience diarrhea, abdominal pain, and other symptoms.
Probiotics have been widely researched as a complementarytherapy for IBD and have shown important benefits.
- One literature review found that probiotics worked as well as the anti-inflammatory drug, mesalamine, in maintaining remission for Crohns disease . Best results were for a combination of probiotics and mesalamine.
- Another narrative review found the best approach for treating active ulcerative colitis was a probiotic supplement combined with an anti-inflammatory drug [19
If you have IBD, the evidence suggests that including probioticsin your treatment regimen may help you maintain your gut health, or minimizeflares.
Gut Microbiota And Their Effects On The Human Health
A recent metatranscriptomic analysis determined the distribution of functional roles of human fecal microbiota. This study demonstrated the distribution of Clusters of Orthologous Groups categories across each of the 10 metatranscriptomes that were sequenced.
Intestinal microbes can alter gene expression in the mammalian gut mucosa, ultimately affecting the function of the gastrointestinal tract. A study using germ-free and conventionally raised mice revealed that the gut microbiota modulated the expression of many genes in the human or mouse intestinal tract, including genes involved in immunity, nutrient absorption, energy metabolism and intestinal barrier function . Interestingly, most changes occurred in the mucosa of the small intestine. The presence of probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract can also affect patterns of gene expression, as demonstrated in a recent human study . Healthy volunteers were subjected to treatment with probiotic bacteria and underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy for duodenal specimen collection before and after a 6-week intervention period. Analysis of human gene transcriptional profiles in samples obtained from subjects treated with probiotics revealed changes in transcriptional networks involved in immunity and mucosal biology.
Transit Of Probiotics Through The Gastrointestinal Tract
After oral administration, probiotics pass through the GIT, from the mouth, through the stomach, to the small intestine and colon. In this section, a range of physicochemical factors , which may impact the viability of probiotics, will be described.
Figure 1 Various factors affect the viability of probiotics during gastrointestinal transit, including gastric acid, digestive enzymes, bile acids in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and colonization resistance caused by commensal bacteria in the colon.
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Probiotics And Intestinal Immunomodulation
Dysbiosis may be associated with several human diseases, including IBD, infections and colorectal cancer . Several probiotics modulate the intestinal immune system by production of secreted factors and metabolites that affect the growth and function of intestinal epithelial and immune cells .
Mechanisms of immunomodulation by beneficial microbes. Probiotics can modulate the immune system in the intestine through the luminal conversion process. The bacteria produce secreted soluble factors and metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids and vitamins using substrates from the diet. These bioactive compounds affect the function of intestinal epithelium and mucosal immune cells, resulting in production of cytokine and related factors such as a proliferation-inducing ligand and B-cell activating factor .
The Gram-positive bacterium L. reuteri is a heterofermentative symbiont indigenous to the gastrointestinal tract of many mammals including humans, pigs, mice and rats . L. reuteri regulates the intestinal immune system by several different mechanisms . Several in vitro studies have elucidated the molecular mechanisms behind its ability to modulate the immune system. Interestingly, these activities seem to be strain-dependent , and affect both innate and adaptive immunity.
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How Symprove Is Different
Digestion involves a lot of seriously strong stomach acid, triggered by the ingestion of food. Bacteria delivered in food are exposed to these harsh acidic conditions and less likely to survive.
Symproves unique water-based formula is packed full of live, active bacteria. Because Symprove is water-based, it doesnt trigger digestion. More live and active bacteria surviving passage through the stomach means a better opportunity to colonise the gut. This ability to deliver thriving bacteria is what makes Symprove so special.
How We Assessed The Top 5 Supplements
Each of our reviews go through a strict analysis and comparison test. We study the ingredients, effectiveness and manufacturing to understand the quality of the product. Furthermore, we evaluate customer reviews, value for money and customer service to protect readers from negative buying experiences.
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Where Can I Get Probiotics
Probiotics are often found in dairy products, such as yogurt and fermented milk. Newer offerings include juice and granola bars. There are many supplements available, as well, that allow you to choose exactly which strains are best for you.
Did you know? Its possible to purchase probiotics as dietary supplements. However, keep in mind that dietary supplement claims and safety are NOT regulated by the government prior to reaching the market. It is up to the manufacturer to ensure their product lives up to the hype and is safe for people to consume. This includes vitamins, as well.
Its also important to note that while fermented foods such as pickles, sourdough bread, or cheese may have once contained good bacteria, the processing and storage methods involved means they no longer have any active, live cultures.
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Importance Of Microorganisms For Your Gut
The complex community of microorganisms in your gut is called the gut flora, gut microbiota, or gut microbiome .
The gut microbiota includes bacteria, viruses, fungi, archaea, and helminths with bacteria comprising the vast majority. Your gut is home to a complex eco-system of 300500 bacterial species .
Most of the gut flora is found in your colon, or large intestine, which is the last part of your digestive tract.
Surprisingly, the metabolic activities of your gut flora resemble those of an organ. For this reason, some scientists refer to the gut flora as the forgotten organ .
Your gut flora performs many important health functions. It manufactures vitamins, including vitamin K and some of the B vitamins .
It also turns fibers into short-chain fats like butyrate, propionate, and acetate, which feed your gut wall and perform many metabolic functions (
Probiotics and prebiotic fibers can help correct this balance, ensuring that your forgotten organ is functioning optimally .
Your gut flora consists of hundreds of types of microorganisms. These microorganisms perform numerous important bodily functions.
Probiotics are widely researched for their effects on digestive health .
Evidence suggests that probiotic supplements can help cure antibiotic-associated diarrhea .
When people take antibiotics, especially for long periods of time, they often experience diarrhea even long after the infection has been eradicated.
These unknowns include :
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Colonizing The Human Gut
The focus of the researchers experiments was on a genus of microbes called Bacteriodes, a group of bacteria that has several dozen species and which can be found in the greatest abundance in the human microbiome. Bacteriodes wasnt chosen because of its popularity, however, instead because it also makes for an excellent lab pet it can be cultured in the lab , and can be genetically modified to introduce specific mutations, fundamental criteria in order to test what effects and consequences these bacteria pose in the human body.
A few different species of the bacteria were added to one mouse, which was sterile , to see if they would compete with each other to colonize the gut. They appeared to peacefully coexist, as expected, but then the researchers first colonized a mouse with one particular species, Bacteroides fragilis, and inoculated the mouse with the same exact species as in the first instance, to see if they would co-colonize the same host. To the researchers surprise, the newly introduced bacteria could not maintain residence in the mouses gut, despite the fact that the animal was already populated by the identical species.
Assessing The Residence Time
The NRMI mice were divided into two cohorts , with and without antibiotics supplemented to the drinking water. Both cohorts were orally administered via intragastric gavage with~107 CFU of S. boulardii in 100 µL of 1×PBS and 10% glycerol. The mice were orally administered S. boulardii for five consecutive days and faeces were collected daily for 20 days. On day five, half of the mice from each cohort were sacrificed. The gut content from six gastrointestinal tract regions was collected in 1 mL of 1×PBS and 50% glycerol and weighed to determine the viability per gram of content.
How Long Does It Take To Repopulate The Gut With Good Bacteria
How long does it take to repopulate the gut with good bacteria?
Around six months. Without taking proper measures to repopulate your gut with the good bacteria, then it could take years to repopulate your gut or never happen properly. One study showed that people who took the proper steps to repopulate their gut recovered many of the lost bacteria within a month and a half. It takes about six months to mostly recover the microbes.
If you want to see our top choice for helping with gut bacteria, it may be worth checking out Performance Lab Prebiotic review.
Or if you wish to see our Best Prebiotics you can see those here.
Building back a healthy microbiome can take up to 6 months if you adopt the correct healthy habits however it is a long term plan because you need to continue these habits daily to maintain a healthy gut microbiome.
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Benefits Of High Quality Probiotics
Supplements can be a very effective and inexpensive method of improving your gut health. By choosing the right supplement, you could feel a difference from just 2-3 weeks. Probiotic strains such as Lactobacilus and Bifidobacterium offer a plethora of broad and gut-specific benefits.
Improves Gut Issues
Bloating, gas, flatulence and stomach cramps are all signs of bad bacteria overload in the gut. Probiotic strains such as Lactobacilus could help correct this imbalance and relieve your stomach of these issues.
Encourages Restful Sleep
Studies have shown that there may be a relationship between bad bacteria in your gut and your ability to fall asleep. So probiotics could improve your sleeping habits. This is just one of the ways that probiotics have health benefits that reach far beyond your stomach.
With over 70% of your immune system residing in your gut, its crucial to offer it the best protection and support. Probiotic supplements can replenish your gut with helpful bacteria so it can help prevent you from catching the flu and other infections.
Promotes Brain Health
Research shows that when there is bad bacteria in your gut, your gut can send confusing signals via the 500 million neurons in your spinal cord. This could mean that poor gut health is leading to stress, brain fog or memory slips.
Dysbiosis And Human Diseases
The intestinal microbiome plays an important role in the function and integrity of the gastrointestinal tract, maintenance of immune homeostasis and host energy metabolism . Perturbations in the composition of microbial communities, also known as dysbiosis, may result in disrupted interactions between microbes and its host. These changes in microbiome composition and function may contribute to disease susceptibility . Several studies have demonstrated associations between intestinal dysbiosis and chronic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders , ultimately resulting in metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes . Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiome have been associated with infections in the gastrointestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome . Treatment modalities to manipulate and restore the balance in the richness and diversity of intestinal microbiome are being explored . Probiotics may introduce beneficial functions into the gastrointestinal tract or enhance the functionality of existing microbial communities. Probiotics may also affect the composition and function of microbial communities by competition for nutrients, production of growth substrates or inhibitors and modulation of intestinal immunity . This concept is supported by results from randomized controlled clinical trials showing the benefits of probiotics during the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases .
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